Test 3 Music History

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Test 3 Music History
2015-04-10 12:44:37
Baker Music history

here we go again
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  1. Trois Nocturnes, Nuages
    • Claude Debussy
    • -songs for female chorus
    • -based on a song by mugsorksky
    • chord progression is modal or tonal
    • color is the most important
    • stream of parallel chods that are not moving functionally
  2. Vers La Flamme
    • Alexander Scriabin
    • harmony is completely non functional
    • rhythm losses its grasp
    • augmented triad with an added whole tone is a huge part of this piece (E,Ab,C,F#)
    • feels very improvisatory with no regular pulse
  3. Embryons Desseches no 3 Da Podophthalma
    • erik satie
    • its about shrimp eating
    • only programmatic in the notes written to the performer
  4. pierrot lunaire
    • arnold schoenberg
    • #8 - Nache and #13 - Enthauptung
    • - a cycle of 21 songs for speaker and 5 instruments
    • = actually 10-11 instruments but only 5 at a time

    • based on poetry by expressionist poet albert giraud
    • - each poem has 13 lines arranged in a midevil rondeau

    • they are developing variations
    • Pierot is a character from comede del rate
  5. Piano Suite op 25
    • Schoenburg
    • serialistic
    • you hang on to the rhythm
  6. Wozzeck
    • Alban Berg
    • first full length atonal opera ever

    • is about a poverty stricken soldier who allows himself to be a test subject for medical experiments
    • - his mistress is unfaithful to him and sleeps with the drum major
    • - he kills himself and the mistress and leaves a son behind

    • sprestchstimme kinda replaces recitative
    • 3 act opera with 5 scenes per act
    • -each is based around a compositional technique
  7. Symphony op 21
    • Webern
    • breaks tone rows into 4 note segments
    • you also hear it stacked

    • 1st movment is sonata form 
    • -development is very short
    • -lots of octave displacement
    • - double cannon breaks the tone row into 3 fragments
    • -development is a palindrome
  8. The rite of Spring
    • Danse des adolescents
    • danse sacrale
    • Stravinsky
    • savage pulsing rhythms - all about chayos 
    • adoration of the earth - fertility rites- death as the renual of life

    • bitonal and octatonic
    • about counterpoint of articulation, tone color, and rhythm
    • uses additive rhythm
  9. Mikrokosmos no 123
    • Staccato and legato
    • Bela bartok
    • a six volume book about piano technique
    • this one is a 2 part invention
    • hungarian folk music and rhythms
  10. music for strings percussionn and celesta
    • bartok
    • all about tone color
    • first time a composer tells instrumentalists where to sit
    • 3rd movement is a palendrome
    • impressionistic night music in the middle
  11. general william booth enters into heaven
    • charles ives
    • a song about the founder of the salvation army
    • about leading the poor and the underbelly of society into heaven
    • is a collage
    • -music changes as he talks about each person
  12. la creation du monde
    • first tableau
    • darius milhaud
    • sounds like a fugue
    • is the synthesis of jazz and neoclassicism
  13. symphony mathis der Maler
    • grablegung
    • hindemith
    • is a suite from his opera
    • deals with a 16th centry painter who joins a peasant uprising (nationalistic work)
    • consistant but fluxuates from consonance to dissonance
    • ABA form
  14. alexander nevsky: Arise ye russian people
  15. symphony no5 op 47
  16. hyperprism
  17. sensemaya
    silvestre revueltas
  18. banshee
    henry cowell
  19. string quartet (1931) finale
    ruth crawford seeger
  20. afro american symphony
    • (first movement)
    • william grant still
  21. 3 big trends in the 20th century
    • proliferation of styles
    • growing gap between what is composed and what the public wants to hear
    • patronage moves to academia
  22. why is operetta created?
    • - to cater to the public
    • light opera in the vernacular of the public
    • spoken dialglogue with a light plot (often comedic)
  23. Musical theater
    • born in west end in london
    • not all that different from operetta
    • its more like a review
    • - lots of numbers strung together very loosely without much plot
    • oklahoma and west side story re-legitimized it
  24. Florence Ziegfeld
    big musical theater producer for vaudeville and broadway
  25. vaudeville
    • biggest form of USA entertainment for a long time
    • a succession of acts that included comedy, novelty acts, and popular singers among other things
  26. tin pan alley
    • linked to vaudeville
    • jewish migration to the USA caused a settlement of Jewish songwriters to all be in the same area (brill building)
    • they turned out lots of popular songs for public consumption (both recordings and sheet music)
    • George gershwin and Irving berlin came from this era/area
  27. French Avant garde
    - often called impressionism

    • characteristics
    • -irregular phrases
    • -blurring of formal outlines
    • - avoidance of traditional harmonic progression
    • - streams of parallel chords
    • - lots of whole tone scales
    • - sounds tonal and pretty but its conventions are outside tonality
    • - atmosphere over function
    • - harmonic cells are used which entails sitting somewhere (usually a dissonant harmony) and playing with it
  28. Claude Debussy
    • - everyone thought he was an impressionist but he said he was a symbolist
    • he studied at the paris conservatory and was very conventional until he heard wagner at beyruth and heard non western music at the paris world exposition
  29. who took over as the top french composer after debussy died?
    ravel - he was more conservative and used modal and whole tone scales but is generally diatonic and functional
  30. Erik Satie
    • very unlike anyone else of his time
    • - his early life was spent as a cabaret pianist
    • - influenced by the absurdist literary movement
    • - almost always worked in small forms (most of his work is 30 second pieces in cycles)

    • was good friends with jean cocteau who was an important poet and writer
    • - he was the hippest guy in showbiz at the time and they did a work called "Parade" together (picasso did the costumes)
  31. nationalism in spain
    - 3 nationslist composers tried to bring spanish music back to spain

    = isaac albeniz - known for piano and guitar works that are very nationalistic

    = enrique granados - known for piano music based on spanish dance

    = Manuel da falla - known for his ballet and opera
  32. ralph vaughen williams
    • - collected folk songs and used them in his work
    • - english nationalist
    • - important choral composer
    • - lots of song cycles and symphonies
  33. Jean Sibelius
    • -finnish nationalist
    • - partially responsible for the rebirth of the Finnish language
    • - his work is based on Finnish legend
    • - very turgid music
  34. alexander Skryabin
    • - kicks russia into the 20th century
    • he is an individualist composer
    • all about non functioning harmony
    • - based lots of his music around a single chord
    • - chord is (C F# Bb E A D)
    • lots of piano and orchestral music
  35. Richard Strauss
    • 2 personalities
    • - the romantic
    • = worked in tone poems and lieder that were mostly tonal
    • - the modernist
    • = opera
    • = salome was the breakout piece and it was deliberately ugly and pushes tonality to the very edge
  36. why was mass media important to music
    - major changes in the way people thought happened overnight
  37. what is ethnomusicology
    • the study, collection, notation, and transcription of non- western music
    • became an academic pursuit during the 20th century
  38. emancipation of dissonance
    • - dissonance resolves to dissonance
    • wagner > mahler > wolf > strauss > shit goes down

    • you are now dealing with procedure not just dissonance
    • - you get larger and larger areas of tonal ambiguity

    • dissonance becomes the central referential unit and it can stand on its own
    • -you then loose the idea of key
  39. Arnold Schoenberg
    • - largely self taught composer from vienna
    • - he became well known by 1897 and was teaching by 1904
    • = the second viennese school is based around his teachings

    • his work is in periods
    • - post romantic period > he is still tonal but it is hard to find (verklarte nacht is from this time)
    • - atonal period > is fully atonal
    • - no publications > he was experimenting with serialism and didn't publish anything
    • - serialism period >
    • -Tonal seralism > occurs when he moves to america in LA and teaches at USC then UCLA
  40. serialism
    • came out of schoenberg's obsession with motive
    • - he thought that motives could help unify a piece that would allow for extended atonal works
    • - all about the horizontal and vertical manipulation of a tone row
    • = tone row must> avoid a tonal center, no repeated pitches, all 12 tones present and equally important,
    • = you use a matrix to help with manipulation
    • - schoenberg uses serialism in a counterpuntal way
  41. Anton Webern
    • musicologist, conductor and private teacher
    • not much of his work was published and he destroyed all of the work he created before he studied with schoenburg
    • - he was not well known as a composer
    • he integrated serialsim with variation techniques
    • characteristics
    • - 1 tone row per movement
    • - very short, concentrated and spare
    • - lots of counterpoint
    • - breaks the larger tone row into smaller pitch class sets
    • - pointalistic music
    • - creates lines using tone color rather than pitch
  42. Alban berg
    • injects the 2nd vienese school with lyricism
    • -doesnt fully embrace serialism
    • lots of whole tone scales
    • takes melodic ideas and expands by interval (think arban interval studies)
    • music is atonal but is merged with traditional forms of composition
    • - often combines serialistic and tonal techniques
    • his tone rows many times sound tonal
    • can have several tone rows in a movement
  43. Igor Stravinsky
    • had several phases to his work
    • 1) sounds like rimsky korsakov who was his teacher
    • 2) moved to paris and worked for the ballet
    • - PRIMIVVITISM - big three ballets
    • 3) neo classical
    • - uses ideas from the 17th and 18th century and rethinks them into the 20th centrry - wanted to add modern rhythm and harmony to classicism
    • 4) serialism - became serialistic after schoenburg died
  44. Charles Ives
    • highly indiviualistic
    • goes to yale to study music - he threw out everything he new and wrote his own way anywhere
    • went from school and became an insurance salesman
    • - he didnt publish his music a collegue made him publish it
    • uses cumulative form
  45. cumulative form
    - you hear the development first then the theme
  46. additive rhythm
    • rhythms patterns that are outside the bar
    • - like rite of spring accent patterns
  47. Bela Bartok
    • hungarian composer, pianist, ethnomusicologiest, educator
    • worked with zoltan kodaly
    • as an ethnomusicologist he was interested in hungary, slovakia, romania, transylvania
    • sections to his work
    • 1) breaks out of tonality
    • -uses strange scales and scale patterns
    • 2) becomes a teacher
    • -takes a break from composing and works on a new style and form
    • 3) highly harsh
    • -this is where miraculous mandaran is from
    • - very harsh - quartertones and palindroemes are common
    • 4) counterpuntal
    • - string quartets and mikrokosmos are from this period
    • 5) softens
    • -tonal with lots of counterpoint
    • - tonal with lots going around it
    • - uses germinal motiv
    • -where strings percussion and celesta and his concerto for orceshtra come from
  48. Les Six
    • group of french composers
    • poulenc, hilhaud, honnegar, auric, deurey, tailleferre
    • "spiritaul advisors" were cocteau and satie
    • they tipified post war france
    • very direct and light
    • heavily influenced by stravinsky's neoclassicism
  49. the new objectivity
    • embraces baroque and classical procedures
    • german version of neoclassicism
  50. paul hindemith
    • music educator, composer, violinst and conductor
    • came to america
    • did a lot of gebrauchmusic
  51. gebrauchmusic
    • -music for use
    • -music with the intent of teaching a technique