Clin path 2

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Clin path 2
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Clin path 2
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  1. 3 methods of collection with urinalysis
    • 1) Midstream
    • 2) Cystocentesis
    • 3) Catheterization
  2. Drawbacks of midstream sample
    Epithelial cells contaminate sample, bacteria on lips of vulva/prepuce and more debris due to urethra
  3. Cystocentesis word breakdown
    • Csysto= bladder
    • Centensis= sterile needle/syringe to aspirate
  4. Cystocentesis good and drawbacks
    Good: Comes straight from bladder, free on contamination, best method

    Drawback: Need restraint and no movement from animal
  5. Catheterization good and drawbacks
    Good: Sample comes straight from bladder

    Drawback: Plastic catheter roughens up epithelium of urethra causing blood, and bacteria attaches to catheter causing bladder infection
  6. Target cells other names
    • 1) Codocyte
    • 2) Leptocyte
  7. 3 parts of urinalysis
    • 1) Physical exam
    • 2) Chemical exam
    • 3) Microscopic exam
  8. Parts of a urinalysis physical exam
    • 1) Quantity
    • 2) Color
    • 3) Clarity/clearness
    • 4) Odor
    • 5) Specific gravity
  9. Is urine is pale yellow with a increased specific gravity what is most likely the cause?
    Diabetes mellitus
  10. Increased amounts of urine is...
    Polyuria
  11. Decreased amounts of urine is...
    Oliguria
  12. With polyuria what color will the urine be and what specific gravity?
    Pale yellow and decreased specific gravity
  13. 4 causes of polyuria
    • 1) Diabetes mellitus
    • 2) Pyometra
    • 3) CIN
    • 4) Cystitis
  14. 4 causes of oliguria
    • 1) Dehydration
    • 2) Decreased water intake
    • 3) Diarrhea
    • 4) Vomiting
  15. Urochrome
    Color
  16. Diluted urine color
    Pale yellow
  17. Concentrated urine color
    Dark yellow
  18. Greenish color urine cause
    Bile pigments
  19. Red/wine urine color causes
    Hemoglobinurea due to viral infection or leptospirosis
  20. Bright red urine color at the beginning of urination causes
    Damage to urethra
  21. Blood at end of urination causes
    Trauma/damage of epithelial cells in the urinary bladder EX: urinary calculi
  22. Black/brown urine color in dogs/cats
    • Melanoma of vulva or prepuce 
    • In horse normal color once on ground due to urochrome
  23. 3 types of urine transparency
    • 1) Clear- no visible suspended particles
    • 2) Cloudy- foggy
    • 3) Flocculent/Turbid- clumpy
  24. Causes of flocculent urine
    Epithelial cells, bacterial cells, casts, WBC, or sperm
  25. Instrument used to determine specific gravity
    Refractometer, measured in u.g.
  26. Specific gravity of water
    1.000
  27. Main cause of elevated specific gravity
    Diabetes due to glucose particles
  28. Normal SG for dog
    1.025
  29. Normal SG for cats
    1.030
  30. Normal SG for horses
    1.035
  31. What happens with SG in a CIN patient
    Fixed SG between 1.008-1.012 even with water deprivation
  32. Low SG causes
    • 1) Pyometra
    • 2) Lots of water intake
    • 3) Elevated temperature
    • 4) Hyperadrenocorticism
  33. Elevated SG causes
    • 1) Acute interstitial nephritis 
    • 2) Cystitis
    • 3) Reduced water intake
    • 4) Dehydration
  34. Glucose on dipstick
    Read at 30 seconds, excessive amounts can be due to diabetes or excessive sugar intake, more sensitive than blood glucose test.
  35. pH on dipstick
    Urine should always be acidic, if elevated could be due to bacterial infection or allow bacteria to grow, basic pH allows crystals to form
  36. Protein on dipstick
    Excessive amounts mean glomerulus isnt working properly, could mean excessive protein intake in diet
  37. 4 things seen in normal urine sediment
    • 1) Epithelial cells
    • 2) WBC
    • 3) Debris
    • 4) Bacteria
  38. 3 types of casts
    • 1) Hyaline (clear)
    • 2) Waxy (yellowish)
    • 3) Granular
  39. Reasons to perform a urinalysis
    • 1) Suspect cystitis or urinary tract problem
    • 2) Renal issue
    • 3) Part of general exam
    • 4) Unknown cause of illness
  40. Normal BUN levels in dogs
    10-20
  41. BUN tests which organ
    Kidney
  42. 4 reasons for elevated BUN
    • 1) Kidney damage
    • 2) Elevated protein in diet
    • 3) CHF
    • 4) Dehydration
  43. Post renal elevated BUN causes
    • 1) In males prostatitis
    • 2) Urinary calculi
  44. Decreased BUN causes
    • 1) Technical error
    • 2) Liver damage
    • 3) Parasites
    • 4) Low protein in diet
  45. Where is urea made?
    Liver
  46. 2 parts of the nephron
    • 1) Glomerulus
    • 2) Tubules
  47. Glomerulus function
    Filters toxins from the blood, like urea
  48. Tubules functions
    • 1)Transports urine from glomerulus to the ureter 
    • 2) Maintains hydration by use of the sodium potassium pump
  49. How much damage to the kidneys must have occurred before see elevated BUN
    60-70%
  50. Creatinine measures function of which organ
    Kidney
  51. Do creatinine levels fluctuate?
    No, once elevated doesnt come down
  52. Creatinine is end product of what?
    Muscle metabolism
  53. Normal creatinine levels in dogs
    1-2
  54. End-stage renal failure and creatinine levels
    If creatinine 5-7 plus animal is end-stage renal failure which can not be reversed. The nephron is damaged. Glomerulus will no longer filter toxins from the blood, results in uremic poisoning and death.
  55. ALT measured which organ function
    Liver
  56. Old name for ALT test
    SGPT
  57. ALT test in horses
    SDH
  58. 4 liver functions
    • 1) Detoxification of venous blood
    • 2) Production of B-complex vitamins 
    • 3) Vitamin K production
    • 4) Store glycogen, undergoes gluconeogenesis
  59. What percentage of liver damage before elevated ALT seen?
    70-80%
  60. ALT normal
    20-80
  61. 3 general signs of liver disease
    • 1) Icterus
    • 2) Ascites in abdomen 
    • 3) Pain in abdomen
  62. After surgery ALT elevated due to..?
    Anesthetics, anesthesia is a toxin that is hepatotoxic. ALT measures liver function
  63. Describe icterus
    Yellowing of mucous membranes and conjutitis of the eye
  64. AST (SGOT) tests for what
    Muscular necrosis
  65. Liver cells called
    Hepatic cells
  66. Primary liver disorders
    • 1) Hepatitis
    • 2) Leptospirosis
    • 3) Neoplasms
  67. Elevated AST reasons for dogs
    • 1) Hepatic damage
    • 2) Myocardial infarction
    • 3) Muscular dystrophy 
    • 4) Animal in training
  68. Elevated AST reasons for cat
    • 1) Hepatic damage
    • 2) Muscular dystrophy
  69. Elevated AST reasons for horse
    • 1) Necrosis
    • 2) Training
    • 3) Monday morning sickness
    • 4) Starvation
  70. Elevated AST reasons in cattle
    • 1) Necrosis
    • 2) White muscle disorder
    • 3) Milk fever
    • 4) Ketosis
  71. Pancreas function
    Produce digestive enzymes that aid in digestion in the small intestines
  72. Amylase enzyme breaks down what
    Starch
  73. Lipase enzyme breaks down what
    Lipids (fats)
  74. Proteinase breaks down what
    Proteins
  75. 3 digestive enzymes
    • 1) Amylase
    • 2) Lipase
    • 3) Proteinase
  76. Pancreatitis acute symptoms
    Pain in abdomen, elevated WBC, anorexia, temperature 103 +
  77. Most common patient to have chronic pancreatitis
    Geriatric obese female that is fed table scraps of spicy and fatty foods. Is a garbage can offender.
  78. 2 causes of chronic pancreatitis
    • 1) Garbage can syndrome
    • 2) Geriatric fed table scraps (spicy foods)
  79. How to treat pancreatitis
    Give steroids, IV fluids, and antibiotics
  80. 2 things to make sure to do with fasting blood glucose test
    • 1) Make sure animal has been fasted for at least 12 hrs
    • 2) Separate serum at most 15 minutes after obtaining sample
  81. What test do you perform for diabetes purposes?
    Fasting blood glucose test
  82. Blood glucose normal
    60-100
  83. 2 things that cause elevated blood glucose
    • 1) Diabetes mellitus
    • 2) Carbohydrates in diet
  84. How is FeLV transmitted?
    Saliva
  85. What type of virus is FeLV?
    Oncoronavirus (RNA)
  86. What can FeLV cause?
    Tumors
  87. Why is FeLV called a retrovirus?
    Transcription is backwards, with a retrovirus mRNA makes copy of DNA in the nucleus (transcription) and the enzyme transcriptase allows a copy to be made. mRNA takes copy to ribosomes where tRNA translates and lines up correct order of amino acids to produce the correct protein (translation). RNA carries the genetic code and DNA copies it.
  88. FeLV snap test is testing for what?
    Antigens
  89. ELISA meaning
    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
  90. With FeLV what is responsible for alerting immune system to produce virus neutralizing antibody
    gp70
  91. With FeLV what core protein are you testing for?
    p27
  92. 2 types of FeLV?
    • 1) Regressive infection
    • 2) Progressive infection
  93. Signs of FeLV
    • 1) Lymphosarcomas
    • 2) Ammonia
    • 3) Oral ulcers
    • 4) Fading kitten syndrome
  94. 3 conditions that increase risk for FeLV
    • 1) Geriatric
    • 2) Young
    • 3) Already sick
  95. What does a positive FeLV test look like?
    2 dots present, top dot is control and second dot means FeLV positive
  96. With regressive FeLV what will happen?
    75% of patients will produce viral neutralizing antibodies, have a competent immune system and will not get sick, animal is still contagious
  97. What happens with progressive FeLV?
    Animal doesnt have a competent immune system, will not produce viral neutralizing antibodies and will get sick and die
  98. Why do we retest a positive FeLV cat twice
    Retest 30-45 days after first test, test twice because 75% of cats can shed virus on their own and will not get sick, 2nd test would be negative
  99. Normal leukocyte count for dog
    10,000-12,000
  100. Normal leukocyte count for cat
    13,000-15,000
  101. Normal leukocyte count for horse
    9,000
  102. Normal leukocyte count for cow
    8,000
  103. Pre-renal causes of an elevated BUN
    Glomerulus damage that can be caused from shock, dehydration, heartworms, high protein in diet, CHF, and toxins.
  104. Ideal age to adopt a puppy
    49 days (7 wks old)
  105. 2 reasons why vaginal cytology is important
    • 1) Problem breeders
    • 2) Prescreening before any breeding
  106. 3 types of problem breeders
    • 1) Dogs that dont know they are dogs
    • 2) Unusual length of proestrus and/or estrus
    • 3) Silent heat: no vaginal discharge
  107. Average proestrus length
    7-9 days, can last 4-15 days
  108. Estrus cycle length
    4-13 days
  109. Complete estrus cycle takes how long
    6 months
  110. When does ovulation occur
    The first 24-48 hrs of estrus
  111. How long does metestrus last
    3-3 1/2 months
  112. Anestrus last how long
    2 months
  113. 2 slides to obtain while performing vaginal cytology
    • 1) Internal impression smear of vulva
    • 2) Use cotton tipped applicator to get sample from vaginal canal
  114. How long do ovulation eggs stay alive
    24-36 hours
  115. How long does sperm stay alive inside a female
    3 days
  116. Epithelial cells during proestrus
    • Early cycle: 80% non-cornified, 20% cornified
    • Mid cycle: 50/50
    • Late cycle: 20% non-cornified, 80% cornified
  117. Epithelial cells during estrus
    All cornified squamous cells
  118. Epithelial cells during metestrus
    Mix of both, followed by all non-cornified
  119. Epithelial cells during anestrus
    All non-cornified cells
  120. Silent heat
    During proestrus estrus and metestrus there is no fluid or RBC
  121. WBC during proestrus
    Present, declining in number
  122. WBC during estrus
    None
  123. WBC during metestrus
    Present, sudden appearance then an increase in numbers
  124. WBC during anestrus
    Present, 80% of cells seen
  125. Blood is a viscous substance composed of 2 parts...
    Cellular portion and fluid portion
  126. More than 99% of the cellular portion of blood are..
    Erythrocytes
  127. Condition in which an animal has a low number of erythrocytes is called..
    Anemia
  128. Describe hematocrit
    Also known as pack cell volume, tells you the degree of anemia a animal may have. Total red blood cell volume versus plasma (fluid)
  129. If a dog has a PCV of 42 what does this mean in regard to RBC and fluid
    42% is amount of red blood cells (pack cell volume),  58% is the amount of plasma (fluid), the PCV is normal
  130. Describe erythropoietin
    Hormone released by the interstital cells of the kidneys. Also involved in erythropoiesis, production of RBC
  131. Define erythropoiesis
    Production of RBC which occurs in the bone marrow. Requires minerals (iron, copper, cobalt), water, water soluble vitamins, 10 essential amino acids, high quality proteins and erythropoietin
  132. Dog normal PCV
    40-45%
  133. Cat normal PCV
    37%
  134. Cow normal PCV
    35%
  135. Draft horse normal PCV
    35%
  136. Hot-blooded horse (thrrough breed) normal PCV
    42%
  137. With anemia the PCV...
    Decreases
  138. With dehydration the PCV...
    Increases
  139. With trauma the PCV...
    Decreases due to blood loss
  140. With shock the PCV...
    Increases
  141. Normal value for sodium is
    145
  142. Normal value for potassium
    4
  143. Normal value for chloride
    110
  144. What is the difference between plasma and serum
    • Plasma: Circulating in blood and contains water, electrolytes, and clotting factors
    • Serum: Doesn't contain clotting factors
  145. Anisocytosis
    Variation in size of RBC
  146. Polychromasia
    Variation in color of RBC
  147. Poikilocytosis
    Variation in shapes of RBC
  148. Chronic anemia
    • 72 hours or more
    • Pale mucus membranes
    • Edema
    • Heart murmur
  149. Acute anemia
    • 72 hours or less
    • Icterus
    • Hemaglobinurea
    • Elevated temperature
  150. 3 signs seen on a blood slide with regenerative anemia
    • Anisocytosis
    • Polychromasia
    • Reticulocytes
  151. Lead poisoning in dogs
    Pain in abdomen, gastrointestinal, colic like symptoms known as "canine plumbism", reticulocytes, and target cells seen with a normal to slightly low PCV. Obtain by chewing on toe strips, shingles, tile, linoleum, childrens toys painted with bright colored lead paints
  152. Hypothyroidism in dogs
    Thyroid produces T3 (Triiodothyroxine) and T4 (thyroxine) which regulates metabolism. If the thyroid isnt producing enough T3 and T4 the animal will exhibit lethargy, weight gain to the point of obesity, distinctive odor (rancid fat), dry skin, dandruff, greasy hair, personality changes, and it can lead to infertility issues. If animal has chronic animal will have bilateral alopecia.
  153. 3 common vet dermatophytes
    • Trichophyton mentagrophytes
    • Microsporum canis
    • Microsporum gypsoum
  154. 2 fungal shapes
    • Spore
    • Hyphae
  155. 2 types of agar plates
    • Blood agar
    • MacConkey agar
  156. 4 common gram + bacteria
    • Staphylococcus
    • Streptococcus
    • Corynebacterium
    • Bacillus
  157. 6 common gram - bacteria
    • E. coli
    • Proteus
    • Pseudomonas
    • Bordetella
    • Pasteurella
    • Klebsiella
  158. 2 types of bacteria that form endospores
    • Bacillus
    • Clostridium
  159. Streptococcus
    • Gram +
    • Only grows on BA
    • Tiny, pin point
    • Bright white
    • Has both alpha and beta hemolysis
  160. Staphylococcus
    • Gram +
    • Found in wounds and skin
    • When hemolytic its a pathogen 
    • Resistant to antibiotics 
    • Small bright white
  161. Corynebacterium
    • Gram + 
    • Found in mouth
    • Can cause pneumonia 
    • Pleiomorphic shapes
  162. Bacillus
    • Gram +
    • Rod shaped
    • Very large, greyish/greenish color
    • Hemolytic
    • Large colony causes lots of nutrients to be used up and causes the BA to be broken down
  163. MacConkey agar only grows...
    Gram - bacteria
  164. E. coli
    • Gram -
    • Usually a pathogen
    • Shows up as 2nd bacterial infection
    • Grows hot pink on MacConkey, dull white round on BA
  165. Proteus
    • Gram -
    • Smells likes cow manure
    • Causes infection in wounds from bites
    • On BA: odor, hemolytic, swarms, greyish film
    • On Mac: medium size, tanish, irregular, odor
  166. Pseudomonas
    • Gram -
    • Smells grape-like
    • On BA: large, greyish/greenish, iridescent, hemolysis
    • Shows up in wounds, dogs ears
    • Shows up green on swabs 
    • Gentamycin used to treat 
    • Grows in water
  167. Pasteurella
    • Gram -
    • Grows only on BA
    • When gram stained looks like measles
    • Coccobacillus shaped
    • Found in cattle with shipping fever
    • With cats found with FUR and calculi 
    • Takes 48 hrs to grow
    • Tear dropped shape, small grey color
  168. Bordetella
    • Gram -
    • Bordetella bronchisepticum (kennel cough)
    • Takes 48 hrs to grow
    • Atropic rhinits in pigs
  169. Klebsiella
    • Gram -
    • Found in digestive tract
    • On BA: within 24 hrs medium/large colony tanish color,in 48 hrs has fused together 
    • On Mac: Within 18-24 hrs looks like E. coli, within 48 hrs pink color fades to tan
    • Enterobacteria 
    • Resistant to many antibiotics 
    • Cause pyometra
  170. ABS stands for
    Antibiotic sensitivity test
  171. Source of fungal infections
    Soil
  172. 2 major types of fungal diseases
    • Skin/superficial: Ringworm, athletes foot
    • Deep/deadly: Blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, cryptococcus, coccidiodiomycosis
  173. Blastomycosis
    Found in Tennessee, central Kentucky, and north Alabama. Causes respiratory problems, found in lungs.
  174. Histoplasmosis
    Found in Tennessee, central Kentucky, and north Alabama. Causes eye problems, lymphatics issues, respiratory problems, found in lungs
  175. 2 ways to acquire a fungal infection
    • Overwhelming exposure to fungal spores
    • Incompetent immune system (young, old, sick)
  176. 2 neutrophil enzymes that dissolve phagocytic material
    • Phagocytin
    • Lysozyme
  177. Pancreas x-ray film digestive test
    • Black outer layer of x-ray film has an emulsion layer on it
    • Cut strip of film off, small enough to fit inside a test tube that is filled with 1 cc feces and 9 mLs 5% sodium bicarb solution
    • If feces contains enzymes it will eat away the gelatin and turn it clear
  178. 4 causes of increased WBC
    • Bacterial infection 
    • Fungal infection
    • Physiological reaction
    • Inflammation
  179. Cause of decreased WBC
    Virus
  180. Best phagocytic WBC
    Neutrophils
  181. 2 types of lymphocytes
    • T lymphocytes
    • B lymphocytes
  182. T lymphocytes have the ability to what...
    Recognize foreign antigens and send out chemical message to b-lymphocytes which release the antibodies
  183. Functions of monocytes
    • Phagoctyic
    • Help in antibody production
    • Build a wall of potentially affected areas
    • Secrete hydrolytic enzymes
  184. Increased levels of eosinophils caused by...
    • Skin problems
    • Parasites
    • Allergies
  185. Platelet functions
    • Carry clotting factors
    • Plug up tears in blood vessels
  186. Megakaryocyte
    Contain a big nucleus, considered the "mother ship" of platelets

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