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Why farm in the first place?
- control over food supply
- allows for specialization
- allows for more people and expansion
- not as dangerous
- food distribution
However, adoption of agriculture proves to be a difficult way of life. It becomes a neolithic misnomer because due to the increase of disease and global ecological change agriculture is not so desirable.
steady food supply and secure food source is _____
- false due to malnutrition and less varied diet
- due to varied
- more people = more diseases
- more complex society with adoption of agriculture
- australian archaeologist
- labeled adoption of agriculture as Neolithic Revolution:transition from foraging to agriculture
- Adoption of agriculture and characteristics of civilization: Increased control over food supply, population growth, can invest in specialize crafts, control over other elements such as planning.
- unilineal evolutionist - society progress from simple to complex
- a paradigm that lets us think that farming is more deriable than hunting and gathering
- we assume that people would adopt agriculture if they have the choice to do so
- but nothing could be further from the truth
- becuase agriculture adoption comes with a lot of consequences t
how do you study domestication and agriculture?
- evidence of plant domestication - seed would be larger
- evidence of animal domestication - animals would be bigger
- earliest domestication of dog is in russia and asia
manipulation of the environment to produce favorable traits in specific plants and animals that can then be exploited.
what does domestication involve?
- involves the human creation of a new plant or animal
- one that is identifiably different from its wild counterpart
- domesticated plants and animals function and behavior differ from their wild counterparts.
- humans distinctly transforming the natural environment itself
domestication of plants?
- ☀larger seeds that dont seperate from the plant and a tougher axis is more desirable
- ☀The axis is the part of a plant (in cereals) to which the spikelets or seeds are attached.
- ☀Axis is called a rachis in wheat.
- ☀In some cases the rachis has become so
- tough that the plant can only reproduce via human intervention. Corn is an example of this.
LEFT OFF RECORDING
the study of botanical remains for the purpose of identifying human manipulation of plants.
In most cases scientists have been able to identify the original species from which our modern domesticates derive from such as:
- ideal example
- original plant, teosinte (or Zea parviglumis) was manipulated
- to the extent that modern maize is virtually unrecognizable from its original plant
( domestication) Animal Bones:
- tend to be smaller than wild counter parts
- docile and more manageable behaviors sought
- reflected in their dental arcade teeth get smaller and more dental crowding
- sex ratio: females also more desirable and valuable than males; favored males are used for breeding
- humans incorporate symbolic behavior invest in animals more using bones in decoration and ritual
centers of domestication
- mesopotamia, egypt, mesoamerica, china, indus river, Andes
- challenge idea of Gordon childe
- because we keep replicating this idea of domestication
consequences of domestication
- ☀initial evidence showed farmers suffered from
- ☀evidence in harris lines in teeth and bones
- ☀less varied diet and crop
- ☀labor intensive
- ☀ccasional failed crop
- ☀anemia and trepanematosis- malnutrition and lack of varied diet evidence in webbing in skull and long bones
- ☀softer diet - malocclusion
- ☀increase in dental caries bc of sugars and carbs
- i☀ncrease in interpersonal violence
With the onset of agriculture there is a
____ increase in dental caries (cavities).
This is a direct result of an increase in _____and _____ that lead to plaque formation.
A _____ diet also resulted in _______
complications with ___ molar is a consequence of agriculture.
- 7 %
- carbs, sugars
- states that bone replaces itself in the direction of functional demand
- .ex. Tennis player - increased labor and mechanical demand
The percentage of _________
increases exponentially with adoption of agriculture
Disease due to adoption of people and agriculture
- Sedentism and agriculture allowed people tolive in great numbers and in close proximity with one another
- allows for the spread of disease
- human pathogens have emerged as a result of close living quarters and close proximity to livestock and their waste
- Modern sanitation is a rather recent phenomenon
- fossilized human feces
- human flesh passed through digestive system
in addition to all the progress brought on by agriculture life was not easy for the first farmers. Why?
- ☀Caries increase by 7%
- ☀Malnutrition resulted from a less varied
- ☀Sedentism and population growth enabled
- spread of diseases
- ☀Close proximity to animals resulted in a
- host of parasites as well as exposure to diseases previously unknown in human
- ☀Early settlements did not have sanitation, which in turn made them breeding grounds for disease.
- ☀increase in violence
Interpersonal violence with adoption of agriculture
- The percentage of interpersonal violence increases exponentially
- humans had propensity to kill each other
- much more violence with larger groups involved with farming
Virtually all of our most devastating diseases originated in other animals...
- TB, measles, anthrax
- lyme disease
As a result of farming humans have drastically altered the environment.
We have permanently altered the landscape around us.
After farming and domestication humans become agents of widespread global ecological change