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2015-04-06 22:24:58

intro to health
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  1. The circulatory system
    body compartments are screened by circulating WBCs
  2. The lymphatic system
    • consist of branching network of vessels that extend into most of body areas. 
    • higher density of lymphatic vessels are in "dead-end" areas- feet, hands, breast, which are frequent contact points of infection
  3. The lymphatic and circulatory system
    Comparison of the generalized circulation of the lymphatic system and the blood. Although the lymphatic vessels are parallel the regular circulation, they transport in only one direction unlike the cydic pattern of blood. Direct connection between the two circulations occur at points near the heart where large lymphs ducts empty their fluid into veins
  4. Plasma leaves blood to become
    interstitial fluid
  5. lymph capillaries
    transport interstitial fluid to blood
  6. lymph nodes contain
    fixed macrophages, B cells, T cells
  7. how many leukocytes per millimeter in blood
  8. lymphocytes defense
    • specific immunity
    • activate t cells, antibodies
  9. phagocytes defense
    critical to specific and nonspecific response
  10. defense of cardiovascular system and lymphatic system
    • very few microbes can survive in the blood with so many defensive elements- virulence factors
    • a handful of organisms have evolved mechanisms to avoid these defense
  11. viremia
    virus in blood
  12. fungemia
    fungi in blood
  13. can introduce bacteria into the bloodstream frequently
    brushing teeth, tearing hang nail
  14. Septicemia
    persistent pathogens or their toxins in blood
  15. Sepsis
    • systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS):
    • characterized by elevated heart rate, high respiratory rate, abnormal white blood cell count, elevated or lowered body temperature
    • i.e. under 26C (97F) or over 38C (100F)
  16. Severe sepsis
    sepsis and decreased blood pressure
  17. Septic schock
    sepsis and uncontrollable decreased blood pressure
  18. lymphagitis
    inflamed lymph vessels accompanying septicemia and septic shock
  19. No normal biota in
    cardiovascular and lymphatic system
  20. Cardiovascular defense
    blood borner components of nonspecific and specific immunity- including phagocytosis, specific immunity
  21. Lymphatic system defense
    numerous immune defense reside here
  22. gram negative sepsis
    • endotoxin shock:
    • endotoxins cause blood pressure to decrease. Antibiotics can worsen condition by killing bacteria
    • antibiotics on cell wall so initially make worse, and release toxin
  23. puerperal sepsis
    • childbirth fever, streptococcus pyogenes. transmitted to mother during child birth but attending physicians and midwives
    • Semmelweis- wash hands
  24. Bacterial infections of heart:
    • Endocarditis
    • Acute Endocarditis
    • Subacute Endocarditis
    • Rheumatic Fever
    • Lyme Disease
    • Helminthic Disease
    • Protozoan Disease
  25. Endocarditis
    inflammation of the endocardium (inside of lining of heart)
  26. Endocarditis signs and symptoms
    • fever, fatigue, joint pain, edema of feet, legs, abdomen, weakness, anemia, abnormal heart beat
    • sometimes abdominal or side pain
    • symptoms similar to myocardial infarction (heart attack)
  27. Acute Endocarditis caused by
    • Most often- Staphylococcus aureus
    • others caused by- streptococcus pyogenes, streptococcus pneumonia, neisseria gonnorhoeae
  28. Transmission and Epidemiology of Acute Endocarditis
    • Parental- via direct entry into the body
    • intravenous and subcutaneous drug users
    • traumatic injuries and surgical procedures- nosocomial infection
  29. Subacute Endocarditis preceded by
    some form of damage to heart valves or by congenital malformation
  30. Subacute Endocarditis susceptible to
    • people who have suffered rheumatic fever more susceptible to this condition
    • already in us
  31. Subacute Endocarditis causative agents
    • bacteria of low pathogenicity, often originating in the oral cavity like streptococcus mutans
    • normal biota from the skins like staphylococcus epidermidis
  32. Complications from bacterial endocarditis
    • stroke- poor blood flow to brain, resulting cell death
    • aneurysm- localized blood filled like ballon like bulge in wall of blood vessel
    • glomerulonephritis- kidney disease
  33. Rheumatic fever
    inflammation of heart valves and joints
  34. Rheumatic fever caused by
    • autoimmune complications of streptococcus pyogenes infections
    • autoimmune= antibody-antigen complex attacked strep, autoimmune leaves damage
  35. Plague causative agent
    Yersinia pestis, gram negative rod
  36. Plague resrvoir
    rats, ground squirrels, and prairie dogs
  37. plague vector
    xenopsylla cheopis
  38. bubonic plague
    • bacterial growth in blood and lymph 
    • only vector transmission
    • inflamed lymph nodes
  39. Septicemia plague
    • septic shock, black death
    • only vector transmission
  40. pneumonic plague
    bacteria in the lungs, person to person transmission
  41. Lyme disease causative agent
    borrelia burgdorferi
  42. Lyme disease rervoir
    small animals
  43. Lyme disease vector
    ticks- lxodes scapularis
  44. Lyme disease first symptom
    bull eye rash
  45. Lyme disease second pahse
    irregular heart beat, encephalitis
  46. Lyme disease third phase
  47. Lyme disease commonly found
    • in warm seasons, upper northern east 
    • less clothes outside more than winter- covered
  48. Lyme disease life cycle
    2 year long
  49. Lyme disease type of vector
    biological vector- live, bite replicate inside
  50. Two types of helminthic disease
    • schistosoma
    • lymphatic filariasis
  51. lymphatic filariasis caused by
    parastic round worm- wuchereria bancrofti
  52. lymphatic filariasis transmitted by
  53. lymphatic filariasis how infects
  54. larvae infect the lymphatic system
    • they leave damage vessels and glands
    • after years of infestation, arms, legs, and scrotum swell and distort
    • aka elephantiasis, lymphedema
  55. Protozoan disease
    • toxoplasmosis
    • chaga's disease
    • african trypanosomiasis
    • maliria
  56. Malaria incubation period
    10 days
  57. malaria  first symptoms
    • malaise(tired, out of it), fatigue, vague aches, and nausea with or without diarrhea
    • chill fever sweating
  58. malaria symptom intervals`
    • symptoms occur 48 or 72 hour intervals 
    • as result of synchronous red blood cell rupture
  59. malaria travel
    to liver through blood stream
  60. Chagas disease aka
    american trypanosomiasis
  61. Chagas disease causative agent
    trypanosoma cruzi
  62. Chagas disease reservoir
    rodents, opossums, armadillos
  63. Chagas disease vector
    reduviid bug
  64. Chagas disease commonly found
    South and central america
  65. Chagas disease symptoms
    • fever
    • general ill feeling
    • swelling of one eye
    • swollen red area at site of insect bite
  66. Chagas disease complications
    • heart disease
    • heart failure
    • malnutrition
  67. Viral Diseases
    Hemorraghic fevers like Ebola limited to regions of Africa
  68. Viral Disease mortality rate
    • 90%
    • down to 70% but more easily transmittable less fate more likely to transmit b/c how it evolves
  69. Viral Disease treatment
    no effective treatment
  70. Viral Disease transmitted by
    bats to primates to humans
  71. Viral Disease transmitted by humans
    • humans to human by contact with infected bodily fluids
    • very low infectious dose so people that people treat them close likely to get them
  72. Viral Disease vaccine
    2 new vaccines
  73. Viral Disease symptoms
    • headache
    • red eyes
    • fever
    • lack of appetite
    • internal bleeding
    • muscle aches
  74. Infectious Mononucleosis
    Lymphatic system disease
  75. Lymphatic system disease aka
    mono, kissing disease
  76. Lymphatic system disease caused by
    epstein-barr-virus (EBV), a member of the herpesvirus
  77. Lymphatic system disease symptoms
    • sore throat
    • fever
    • gray white exudate in the throat
    • skin rash
    • enlarged spleen and liver
    • patients remain fatigued for a period of weeks
  78. percent population with EBV
  79. EBV causes no noticeable
  80. Lymphatic system disease infection (teen)
    during teens seem to result in disease
  81. Lymphatic system disease infection (before or after teens)
    usually asymptomatic
  82. Lymphatic system disease (infectious mononucleosis) transmission
    • direct oral contact and contamination with saliva
    • also transfer through blood transfusion, sexual contact, and organ transplant