ch 13.txt

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ch 13.txt
2015-04-06 19:40:47
diane cs111
diane cs111 ch 13
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  1. What is artificial intelligence?
    Artificial intelligence is the collection of computations that make it possible for a machine to perceive, reason, and act in a manner consistent with the human behavior.
  2. Describe the Turing test.
    The Turing test is used to determine if a computer can pass as a human. During the test, a questioner poses questions to a computer and a human. The questioner doesn't know which is which. If the questioner cannot tell which is human and which is machine, the computer passes the test.
  3. What are heuristic functions used for?
    • Heuristic functions are used to simulate logical reasoning. It is an artificial measure of how close the computer's current status is to its problem solving goal.
    • In the tic-tac-toe example, the computer figures out the total number of ways the computer can win after any given move versus the number of ways its opponent can win after the same move. The computer chooses the move that gives it the highest number of ways to win.
  4. What is an expert system?
    It is an application developed with the assistance of experts in a particular field to perform certain tasks. These systems are used frequently in the medical field.
  5. Describe how genetic algorithms work.
    Genetic algorithms are used when a problem has no definitive algorithmic solutions. In this type of solution, there are many possible solutions (each with its own fitness score) in the initial set. Subsequent "generations" are created by blending members of the population. Each member of the population is given a fitness score. The goal is to "breed" solutions.
  6. What is the purpose of a neural network?
    • A neural network is a multiprocessor system built to learn to recognize patterns as correct or incorrect, based upon a trial-and-error process.
    • An example of this is a neural network teaching a computer system how to back a truck up to a loading dock.
  7. It is ___________ for a computer to grasp the syntax and semantics of natural language.
  8. What are the steps involved in speech recognition?
    • 1) PC sound card converts analog sound waves into a digital format
    • 2) A software acoustical model breaks the word into phonemes
    • 3) A software language model compares the phonemes to words in its dictionary
    • 4) Once the software decides on the most likely candidate, it displays that word
  9. What are robots?
    Robots are programmable devices capable of manipulating objects and performing tasks much like humans are able to do.
  10. What are three problems robots face with regard to collisions?
    • 1) Collision avoidance - robots use scanners to determine proximity to other objects, redirecting the object when a collision is imminent.
    • 2) Collision detection - robots use sensors at strategically located positions on the robot to determine if a collision occurs
    • 3) Collision reaction - robots decide how to handle a collision
  11. What is the difference between closed world and open world?
    • In a closed world, the robot knows the positions of everything it will encounter; it has no need to perceive obstacles (like manufacturing environment).
    • In an open world, perception is important - the robot must perceive its surroundings and react to them.
  12. What are some human actions that are difficult to program robots to do?
    • 1) Walking gait - propel itself forward without losing its balance
    • 2) grasping - how can a robot be programmed to grasp part of a stack of objects without toppling the rest of the stack.
  13. List three types of artificial intelligence used in games (to control movement).
    • 1) dead reckoning - move toward anticipated position of prey, not current position of prey
    • 2) flocking - mob mentality - with a few variables a group of objects can be programmed to flock