Patho- Adaptation and Degeneration.txt

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Patho- Adaptation and Degeneration.txt
2015-04-06 21:29:48
vetmed degeneration

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  1. Mild disruption of cellular homeostasis permits _____________.
  2. Sustained cellular injury can lead to ____________.
  3. Severe disruption of cellular homeostasis leads to ___________, leading to __________ or ___________.
    irreversible cell injury; necrosis; apoptosis
  4. A decrease in size due to reduced cell size; a pathologic response.
  5. A decrease in size due to a combination of reductions in cell size and number; a physiologic change.
  6. Process by which underutilized cells prune unneeded element through enzymatic self-digestion; a form of quantitative atrophy.
  7. Gross morphologic changes associated with adaptation. (2)
    reduced size, increased firmness (normal shape and form)
  8. Microscopic morphologic changes associated with adaptation. (2)
    cells are smaller than normal with high nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio
  9. Serous atrophy (degeneration) of adipose tissue.
    starvation atrophy
  10. Local reduction in size of an organ or tissue due to interference with the local blood vascular supply.
    ischemic atrophy
  11. When organs dependent on hormonal stimulation to maintain normal structure and function decrease in size when the trophic influence is lost.
    endocrine atrophy
  12. chronic increase in demand on endocrine organs, likely due to build-up of catabolic enzymes and accumulating acid metabolites.
    exhaustion atrophy
  13. When an organ is immobilized or forced to cease function.
    disuse atrophy
  14. follows persistent displacement of tissue by constant pressure from adjacent masses or blockage of ducts or outflow tracts.
    pressure atrophy
  15. occurs secondary to loss of trophic influence on nerves.
    denervation atrophy
  16. What is the etiology of adaptation? (5)
    catabolism exceeds anabolism (lack of trophic signals, prolonged decrease/(rarely increase) in metabolic demand, restriction of nutrients, vascular compromise
  17. Adaptation and degeneration may be ____________ processes.
    reversible (if insult is removed)
  18. Amplification due to an increase in the size of existing parenchymal cells.
  19. Amplification due to an increase in the total number of parenchymal cells.
  20. Hypertrophy occurs in ____________; hyperplasia occurs in ______________.
    any tissue; tissues who cells retain a postnatal capacity for proliferation
  21. Increase in mass due to elevated functional load.
    physiologic hypertrophy
  22. Increased mass due to disease process.
    pathologic hypertrophy
  23. Seen in paired organs hen function of one is lost.
    compensatory hypertrophy/hyperplasia
  24. Etiology of hypertrophy.
    increased workload, demand, and/or endocrine/ growth factor stimulation
  25. The pathogenesis of hypertrophy begins with _________ for cellular function by __________ or ___________.
    increased demand; positive signals; deficiencies of essential molecules (Ca2+, iodine, vitamin A)
  26. The pathogenesis of hypertrophy involves _______________ to support increased demand for cellular function; this lead to...(4)
    gene activation; protein synthesis, enhanced metabolic activity, cell proliferation (hyperplasia), and exhaustion atrophy (sometimes)
  27. Hypertrophy becomes harmful when the change in the environment _________ an involved tissues are _______________.
    persist; forced into overcompensation
  28. Reversible change where one adult cell type is replaced by another cell type derived from the same germ cell layer.
  29. Metaplastic changes are more commonly seen in __________.
    epithelial tissues
  30. Epithelial metaplasia most commonly involves a morphological change from __________ to ___________.
    columnar cells; stratified squamous cells
  31. Locations where epithelial metaplasia occurs. (3)
    urinary tract, respiratory tract, lining of ducts of glands
  32. The etiology of epithelial metaplasia is usually...(3)
    protracted mechanical trauma, hormone imbalance, sometimes a deficiency
  33. Mesenchymal cells/tissue retain their ___________.
    pluripotent capactiy
  34. The first phase of mesenchymal metaplasia is usually _____________.
    fibroblast hypertrophy/hyperplasia
  35. Sloughed metaplastic cells may function as a _________ for __________ formation.
    nidus; concretion
  36. Earliest visible evidence indicative of cell damage.
  37. 4 cases of degeneration.
    accumulation of substances, deficiency of vital physiologic substrates, interference w/ normal metabolism, sublethal damage due to modest stresses
  38. With degeneration, interference with normal metabolism may occur with decreased or absent ________, with secondary loss of _____; this causes increased cytoplasmic water following the flow of ions into the cell and __________.
    oxygen; ATP; cell swelling (low ATP--> inability to control ion pumps)
  39. The pathogenesis of degeneration begins with abnormal _________; this leads to altered intracellular _________, leading to a shift in the _________ across membranes and disruption of _____________.
    energy metabolism; ionic levels; ionic gradients; membrane-bound Na-K ATPase pump
  40. With the pathogenesis of degeneration, disruption of ion pumps causes an accumulation of intracellular water, leading to mechanical disruption of _________, dilation of the ___________, and ___________ swelling.
    the cytosol; rough ER; mitochondrial
  41. During the pathogenesis of degeneration, mitochondria switch to anaerobic glycolysis, causing intracellular ________ and ____________; the plasma membrane also becomes more ________, resulting in __________ into interstitium and blood.
    acidification; protein denaturation; porous; leakage of cell contents (enzymes, like AST and ALT)
  42. Gross morphologic changes associated with degeneration include...(4)
    enlarged organs, heavier organs, pale/ran colored, friable (easily crumbled) and soft
  43. Histopathologic morphologic changes associated with degeneration include _______ cells, nucleus ________, cytoplasm is _________ and ________, the color is _________, and the consistency is _________.
    swollen; intact; eosinophilic and granular; friable and soft
  44. The earliest ultrastructural change that occurs with degeneration is __________; reversibly, _______ and _______ occur; irreversibly, _________ form on the _________.
    mitochondrial damage; shrinking; swelling; dense Ca2+ deposits; inner cristae
  45. Later ultrastructural changes associated with degeneration include ______________ and ____________.
    ER dilation; structural deterioration (reduplication of organelle membranes, inclusions, fat droplets)
  46. The stereotypic initial cellular response to sub-lethal injury.
    hydropic degeneration
  47. Hydropic degeneration results from ___________ due to __________________.
    acute cell swelling; abnormal intracellular accumulation of water
  48. Hydropic degeneration occurs in ______________ and is commonly observed as a cytopathic effect of ____________.
    all cells and tissues; viral infection
  49. Grossly, hydropic degeneration causes organs to be..... (4)
    heavy, swollen, wet, and have a grey hue.
  50. Microscopically, hydropic degeneration causes cells to be _________, cytoplasm to be ________, and nucleus to be __________.
    enlarged; granular; displaced peripherally
  51. Vacuolar change and ballooning degeneration are variable features of _____________.
    hydropic degeneration
  52. The pathogenesis of hydropic degeneration involves disruption of ____________ production, interruption of the __________, inability to control ___________, and ________ via ________.
    cellular ATP; Na-K ATPase pump; intracellular Na+ concentration; water imbibition; osmosis
  53. Severe hydropic degeneration leads to __________ and _________, which produces expansive _____________ below the stratum corneum and above the stratum spinosum (called __________) and/or within the stratum spinosum and germinativum (called __________).
    cell death (necrosis); rupture; intraepithelial fluid pockets; vesicles; blisters
  54. Fatty degeneration results from...
    accumulation of neutral lipids (triglycerides) within non-adipose cells, resulting in coalescence of lipid droplets
  55. Fatty degeneration occurs in... (4)
    kidney, liver, cardiac and skeletal muscle
  56. Describe the gross morphologic change associated with fatty degeneration of the liver. (4)
    friable, greasy, swollen, yellow
  57. Describe the gross morphologic changes associated with fatty degeneration of the kidney.
    streaks corresponding to the renal tubules, esp. in the medulla
  58. What are the regional localizations of fatty degeneration in the liver?
    centrilobular (toxins), periportal (malnutrition), diffuse
  59. Describe the gross morphological changes associated with fatty degeneration of the muscles.
    white streaks bundled within major muscle masses
  60. Describe the microscopic changes associated with fatty degeneration. (4)
    cytoplasmic vacuoles, displacement of cytoplasm and organelles, granular and highly eosinophilic cytoplasm, nucleus displaced peripherally
  61. Potential causes of fatty degeneration include... (4)
    increased entry of lipids, decreased removal of lipids, increased synthesis of lipids, malnutrition
  62. If fatty degeneration is caused by increased entry of lipids, it can be due to... (2)
    excessive lipid take, increased fat mobilization due to higher energy demand
  63. If fatty degeneration is caused by decreased removal of lipids, it may be due to... (2)
    altered lipid metabolism, hepatic disease resulting in lo production of cholesterol and triglycerides
  64. Fatty degeneration may lead to rupture of the ______ and incite __________.
    plasma membrane; an inflammatory response
  65. Myxomatous degeneration is aka _________.
    serous atrophy
  66. Myxomatous degeneration results from accumulation of __________ in __________ or __________, leading to conversion of ___________ to _____________.
    mucin-like material; connective tissue; adipocytes; mature adipose stores; a more immature mesenchymal phenotype
  67. Myxomatous degeneration occurs in,... (2)
    connective tissue, adipose
  68. Grossly, myxomatous degeneration causes _________ that are gelatinous, soft, and shiny.
    fat deposits
  69. Microscopically, myxomatous degeneration causes the _________ of __________ to be ____________.
    cytoplasm; fat cells; blue-tinged
  70. Myxomatous degeneration is frequently associated with ____________ or ______________.
    cachexia; malnutrition
  71. Hyaline degeneration results from...
    denaturation of existing cytoplasmic proteins and/or pinocytosis.
  72. Hyaline degeneration occurs in... (3)
    cells with high protein content, is. kidney, liver, muscle
  73. Epithelial hyaline degeneration causes organs to appear __________ or __________ and is often accompanied by ____________.
    "glassy"; "waxy"; hydropic degeneration
  74. Droplets associated with hyaline degeneration in epithelial cells will often be positive for ___________.
    periodic acid-schiff stain (binds carbs)
  75. Mesenchymal derivatives of hyaline degeneration causes the fusion of collagen fibers into extracellular, ___________, __________, and __________ masses of proteins.
    brightly eosinophilic, acellular, and structure-less
  76. Pathogenesis of hyaline degeneration involves... (2)
    protein denaturation or pinocytotic uptake, accumulation of affected proteins within the cytoplasm
  77. Severely affected cells with hyaline degeneration typically proceed to ____________.
    cell death