Liver disease produces ___________ and venous pooling in the ___________, often with __________.
portal hypertension; viscera; ascites
Hypoxia causes accumulation of __________ in tissues and therefore, _______ and ________.
catabolites; degeneration; necrosis
Congestion can cause... (4)
hypoxia, edema, thrombosis, parenchymal stem cell necrosis with fibrosis
Parenchymal cell necrosis and fibrosis is due to _____________ with chronic congestion.
proliferation of connective tissue
Extensive hemorrhage is due to __________.
rhexis ( physical separation of vessel walls)
Minimal hemorrhage is due to ____________.
diapedesis (increase in permeability without obvious disruption of vessel walls)
What are the 3 sizes of hemorrhagic lesions from smallest to largest?
petechiae, ecchymoses, purpura
Extensive hemorrhage that flows along the plane of tissue.
Blood in the tissue that produces nodular extravascular blood clot.
8 causes of hemorrhage.
trauma, necrosis of vessels by an inflammatory process, toxic injury, endotheliotropic viruses, hypoxia, abnormal coagulation, primary vascular disease, invasion of vessel by adjacent inflammatory process
Hypoxia contributes to __________ by inducing a loss of _____________, leading to ____________.
hemorrhage; ATP production; endothelial degeneration
Abnormal coagulation leading to _____________ may be caused by... (4)
hemorrhage; decreased synthesis of clotting factors, BM suppression, inability to activate the clotting cascade, thrombocytopenia
Decreased synthesis of clotting factors, which may cause hemorrhage, can be caused by... (4)