Patho- Circulation Part 1.txt

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Patho- Circulation Part 1.txt
2015-04-06 21:30:15
vetmed patho circulation

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  1. Disturbances in circulation represent generalized disruptions in... (3)
    nutrient transport, communication molecules (hormones, cytokines), homestasis
  2. Continuous capillaries are in the... (2)
    brain and thymus
  3. Discontinuous capillaries are in the... (2)
    liver and spleen sinusoids
  4. Fenestrated capillaries are in the... (2)
    kidneys, muscles
  5. The "normal" capillary bed has __________ and ___________ properties.
    anti-thrombotic; pro-fibrinolytic
  6. Injured capillaries become ________ and _________.
    pro-thrombotic; anti-fibrinolytic
  7. Reduced oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood.
  8. Grossly, what are the characteristics of anemia? (3)
    thin/watery blood, pale tissues, edema (frequently)
  9. Microscopically, anemia causes ____________ changes in "all" tissues due to oxygen deficiency, best seen in the kidney and liver as acute ___________ and _____________.
    degenerative; cell swelling; fatty degeneration
  10. Causes of anemia. (4)
    hemorrhage, hemolytic disease, abnormal erythrocytes or hemoglobin, BM destruction
  11. A hematocrit of ______ is normal; a PCV of ________ causes clinical signs of __(3)__; cats can survive with a PCV of ______ without really showing clinical sign.
    35%; 30%; <10%
  12. A systemic decrease in body water content, usually of the interstitium.
  13. What are clinical findings associated with dehydration? (3)
    wrinkled, inelastic skin, dry, tacky mucous membranes, hemoconcentration
  14. What are the 2 mechanisms of dehydration?
    decreased water intake, increased water excretion
  15. Decreased water intake causes depletion of ____________ with replacement by ____________; this causes cells to _______ and _______ to develop.
    interstitial water; intracellular water; shrink; thirst
  16. Increased water excretion due to ______ depletion causes movement of ________ into ________; cells appear ________ and ________ does not develop.
    sodium; water; cells; normal; thirst
  17. The accumulation of abnormal quantities of fluid.
  18. Edema is a ________ from the vasculature.
  19. Local edema is associated with __________ or ___________.
    trauma; inflammation
  20. Generalized edema is a reflection of _____________.
    systemic fluid imbalance
  21. Ventral edema is a type of __________ edema that reflects... (3)
    generalized; primary disease of the heart, lungs, and/or liver.
  22. Generalized edema affecting the ENTIRE body.
  23. Cerebral edema is largely __________ because of the lack of __________ within the CNS; it is associated with _____________.
    intracellular; interstitial spaces; acute CNS injury
  24. Grossly, edema has what morphological features? (7)
    swollen, distended, soft, wet, cool, pits on pressure, painless
  25. Microscopically, edema causes an increase in __________ within tissues, dilated ___________, and enlarged ________ that may exhibit a homogeneous eosinophilic tinge if it contains ___________.
    clear space; lymphatics; cavities; large amounts of protein
  26. What are the normal factors that keep fluids in the vessels? (3)
    intact capillaries, extravascular tissue pressure, and colloid osmotic pressure on the venous side
  27. Increased capillary permeability contributes to __________ by leading to ________ leaking into the _________, with movement of water.
    edema; protein; interstitium
  28. Decreased osmotic pressure contributes to _________ because is it caused by _________ due to __________ or __________.
    edema; hypoproteinemia; net protein loss (starvation, protein-losing nephropathy/enteropathy); decreased protein synthesis (liver disease)
  29. Increased capillary blood pressure contributes to _________ when there is a local _________ or ____(3)____.
    edema; obstruction; heart, liver, and lung disease
  30. Vascular hypoperfusion is associated with ___________.
  31. Edema will lead to pressure-mediated... (3)
    degeneration, necrosis, and atrophy.
  32. The origin of edema is ___________; the origin of inflammatory exudate is ___________.
    non-inflammatory; inflammatory
  33. The fluid color of edema is ____________; the fluid color of inflammatory exudate is ___________.
    clear to pale yellow; variable
  34. The turbidity of edema is ___________; the turbidity of inflammatory exudate is ___________.
    none to slight; mild to moderate
  35. Edema has ______% protein; inflammatory exudate has _______% protein.
    <3; >3
  36. The specific gravity of edema is __________; the specific gravity of inflammatory exudate is ________.
    <1.018; >1.018
  37. Edema transudate is often _________, whereas inflammatory exudate is not.
    sterile (no bacteria)
  38. What cell types are present in edema as opposed to inflammatory exudate?
    edema: acellular or mesothelia; exudate: polymorphonuclear leukocytes, mononuclear leukocytes
  39. An excess of blood contained within blood vessels.
    active congestion
  40. Active arterial engorgement.
  41. Passive venous engorgement.
  42. Physiological cause of active congestion.
    increased workload during muscle exertion
  43. Psychological cause of activate congestion.
    neurogenic (blushing)
  44. Pathologic causes of active congestion include release of ____________ and ___________.
    vasoactive chemicals; neurogenic stimuli
  45. Grossly, active congestion causes... (4)
    bright red, warmer, slightly swollen, locally throbbing pulse
  46. Microscopically, active congestion causes dilation of _____________, increase in _________ and _________, and tissue ___(2)___.
    capillaries/arterioles; fluid; inflammatory cells; degeneration and necrosis
  47. Active congestion is significant because...
    it is a cardinal sign of inflammation.
  48. Accumulation of excess blood within the capillary-venous side of a vascular bed due to less venous outflow.
    passive congestion
  49. Passive congestion occurs mostly in _____________.
    parenchymal organs
  50. Acute passive congestion appears... (4)
    dark red-purple, soft, swollen, cool
  51. Chronic passive congestion appears... (5)
    brown, firm, fibrotic, necrotic, and degenerative
  52. ______________ congestion occurs due to lying in a recumbent position for long periods, causing blood to pool in dependent (lower) structures.
    Hypostatic (type of passive)
  53. With hypostatic congestion, there is post mortem _______, meaning...
    lividity; paired organs are different colors.
  54. With acute passive congestion, microscopy hows that capillaries/veins/sinusoids are ___________; there may be __________ or __________ present.
    distended with blood; hemorrhage; thrombosis
  55. With chronic passive congestion, microscopy shows capillaries/veins/sinusoids are distended with blood and there is... (4)
    parenchymal cell degeneration and necrosis, hemosiderosis, fibrosis/vascular cavitation, thrombosis
  56. Acute congestion of the GI leads to...; Chronic GI congestion leads to...
    prominent vasculature and lymphatics; brown-yellow discoloration
  57. Acute passive congestion of the kidney leads to ...; chronic passive congestion of the kidney leads to...
    darker medulla (compared to cortex); fatty degeneration
  58. Acute passive congestion of the liver leads to...; chronic passive congestion of the liver leads to...
    dark purple, swollen, oozes blood; mottled
  59. Acute passive congestion of the lung leads to...; chronic passive congestion of the lung leads to...
    dark red/purple, oozes blood; bronze to brown
  60. Acute passive congestion of the spleen leads to...
    dark purple, swollen, oozes blood
  61. Local congestion occurs when __________ is restricted and __________ is unimpeded; this can occur with... (3)
    venous outflow; arterial flow; IV obstruction, increased resistance (hypertension), compression from adjacent masses or malposition of viscera..
  62. Chronic congestion occurs due to inadequate _____________ the underlying cause is _________ and due to ____________.
    pump/flow centrally; central; functional disease of the heart, lungs, or liver
  63. Right heart failure in __________ results in _________ in the... (3)
    animals; venous backup; liver, spleen, and viscera.
  64. Left heart failure in ___________ results in __________ in the...
    humans; primary venous backup; (primarily) lungs, (secondarily) liver, spleen, and viscera.
  65. Liver disease produces ___________ and venous pooling in the ___________, often with __________.
    portal hypertension; viscera; ascites
  66. Hypoxia causes accumulation of __________ in tissues and therefore, _______ and ________.
    catabolites; degeneration; necrosis
  67. Congestion can cause... (4)
    hypoxia, edema, thrombosis, parenchymal stem cell necrosis with fibrosis
  68. Parenchymal cell necrosis and fibrosis is due to _____________ with chronic congestion.
    proliferation of connective tissue
  69. Extensive hemorrhage is due to __________.
    rhexis ( physical separation of vessel walls)
  70. Minimal hemorrhage is due to ____________.
    diapedesis (increase in permeability without obvious disruption of vessel walls)
  71. What are the 3 sizes of hemorrhagic lesions from smallest to largest?
    petechiae, ecchymoses, purpura
  72. Extensive hemorrhage that flows along the plane of tissue.
  73. Blood in the tissue that produces nodular extravascular blood clot.
  74. 8 causes of hemorrhage.
    trauma, necrosis of vessels by an inflammatory process, toxic injury, endotheliotropic viruses, hypoxia, abnormal coagulation, primary vascular disease, invasion of vessel by adjacent inflammatory process
  75. Hypoxia contributes to __________ by inducing a loss of _____________, leading to ____________.
    hemorrhage; ATP production; endothelial degeneration
  76. Abnormal coagulation leading to _____________ may be caused by... (4)
    hemorrhage; decreased synthesis of clotting factors, BM suppression, inability to activate the clotting cascade, thrombocytopenia
  77. Decreased synthesis of clotting factors, which may cause hemorrhage, can be caused by... (4)
    dietary deficiency (Vit K), genetic dz, liver disease, toxicity
  78. An aneurysm is a vessel "weakness" due to a ________________ in the wall.
    degenerative/necrotic process
  79. What are two primary vascular diseases that may cause hemorrhage?
    aneurysm, inflammation of vessels (vasculitis, etc)
  80. What is the compensation for acute blood loss?
    redistribution of blood volume from splanchnic pools
  81. What is the compensation for chronic slow blood loss?
    increased hematopoiesis
  82. Rapid extensive hemorrhage that causes death.
    hypovolemic shock
  83. Once hemorrhage has stopped, fluids are reabsorbed via ____________, ____________ are catabolized, ____________ are phagocytized, ________ is excreted, and ________ is recycled.
    lymphatics; plasma proteins; erythrocytes; heme; iron
  84. Repair of vessels and damaged tissue associated with hemorrhage is mediated by ___________.
  85. A clincopathologic hypovolemic state that arises due to rapid onset imbalance b/w blood volume and vascular blood volume.
  86. What is the main morphological change associated with shock?
    blood pooling (congestion) in viscera or blood loss
  87. Simple diagnostic test for shock.
    capillary refill time
  88. Normal CRT is ________.
  89. 3 causes of shock.
    hemorrhage, inappropriate expansion of peripheral capillary beds, neurogenic arteriolar vasodilation
  90. Inappropriate expansion of peripheral capillary beds may cause _________ and it occurs because of... (4)
    endothelial injury (septic, endotoxic, or anaphylactic), DIC, microthrombi, cytokines (leading to increased permeability of vessels)