When a thrombus occludes an artery, there is _____________ and high probability of ___________.
peripheral ischemia; infarction
When a thrombus occludes a vein, there is _________ and ____________ on surrounding tissue.
local hypoxia; pressure effects
Inflammation develops with thrombosis because...
of the initial tissue/vessel insult and a blood clot in vivo is a "foreign" object
The resolution of thrombi includes ____________ and ____________.
Process whereby intravascular foreign particulate matter is mechanically transported by the vascular system to lodge at a site distant to its point of origin.
Most emboli arise in the ____________from ________; their major effects are on the ____________.
venous side; thrombi; arterial side
A solid embolism that is a detached intravascular fragment of a thrombus.
Solid emboli can be caused by... (4)
parasites, neoplastic cells, bacteria, or clumps of erythrocytes due to incompatible blood transfusion
Clumps of erythrocytes due to incompatible blood transfusions.
Liquid emboli are made of _______.
Gas emboli occur due to ______________.
injections of air
Emboli are mostly found in the.... [organs]
lungs, liver, and CNS
Emboli may cause... (3)
ischemia, infarction, gangrene
A localized area of ischemia-induced coagulation necrosis produced by a rapid mechanical blockage of the arterial blood supply following obstruction from within or vessel compression from without.
___________ results from deprivation of adequate blood (oxygen) supply to a tissue.
The size of the infarct is greater in tissues with _____________, such as__(2)__, or in tissues with a ___________, such as ___________.
poor collateral circulation; cardiac muscle, kidney; high metabolic rate; brain
Venous infarction often occurs in the _____________ and is followed by invasion of ___________ and an onset of ___________.
intestine; saprophytic bacteria; moist gangrene
A red infarct is filled with __________and commonly occurs in the... (3)
blood; intestine, lungs, spleen (due to many collaterals)
A pale infarct is ___________ poor; it commonly occurs in the... (3)
erythrocyte; kidney, heart, and skeletal muscle (due to poor collateral circulation)
Microscopically, infarctions have a sharply demarcated area of _____________ adjacent to ____________ outlined with blood and lekocytic infiltrates.
ischemic coagulation necrosis; viable tissue
Chronic infarction lesions are ___(3)___ microscopically and show ________ and ________.
shrunken, pitted, and distorted; scar tissue; mineralization
A rapid onset systemic condition characterized by uncontrolled activation of the intrinsic and/or extrinsic coagulation systems leading to production of intravascular fibrin thrombi and emboli.
DIC is often associated with... (5)
septicemia, endotoxemia, extensive trauma, cancer, and endotheliotropic viruses
DIC begins with _________________, causing release of __________ and initiation of _________; this causes generation of _________, and hydrolysis of clotting factors and platelets leads to ________ and ________.