Patho- Irreversible Cell Damage.txt

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Mawad
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300119
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Patho- Irreversible Cell Damage.txt
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2015-04-06 21:31:21
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vetmed irreversible damage
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  1. The death of cells in a dead animal; spontaneous disintegration of tissues.
    autolysis
  2. Autolysis occurs in...
    all cells and tissues, especially rapid in locations with high enzyme content and faster at high temps
  3. rigidity of the body due to contraction of the musculature.
    rigor mortis
  4. blue-purple coloring of the low tissues and organs due to post mortem congestion.
    liver mortis
  5. progressive creptius of tissue via formation of large gas bubbles by putrefying bacteria.
    tissue emphysema
  6. Post mortem, tissue discoloration occurs via _________.
    bile imbibition
  7. Liquefaction is a _______ post mortem.
    late change
  8. The pathogenesis of autolysis occurs after _______, there is cessation of ________, and accrual of ___________ and rupture of ________, and invasion of ___________.
    death; blood flow; acidic metabolic byproducts; lysozymes; putrefying microbes
  9. In the absence of life, __________ must ensue.
    decomposition
  10. Death of cells in a living animal.
    necrosis
  11. cell death by swelling.
    oncotic necrosis
  12. Oncotic necrosis is a process that is __________; it incites _______ and _________, leading to ___________; it is often incited by __________.
    uncontrolled; inflammation; fibrosis; permanent loss of organ function; exogenous agents
  13. cell death by shrinkage with ingestion by adjacent cells.
    apoptosis
  14. Apoptosis is a process that is ________; it does not result in ________, _________, or ________.
    tightly regulated; inflammation; scarring; permanent impact
  15. What are gross characteristics of oncotic necrosis? (4)
    irregular, pale foci, soft (loss of tensile strength), focus may have red or pale rim, cavitation
  16. At the microscopic level, oncotic necrosis tissue is not ________ throughout; cells swell due to...
    affected uniformly; altered ionic gradients and an influx of water
  17. At the microscopic level, cells affected by oncotic necrosis have loss of __________, the nucleus exhibits ___________, there is cytoplamic _________, and cell _________.
    internal structural detail; clumping of chromatin; hypereosinophilia; fragmentation
  18. degeneration of the nucleus associated with chromosome clumping and nuclear condensation.
    pyknosis
  19. rupture of the cell nucleus with disintegration of chromatin.
    karyorrhexis
  20. dissolution of the chromatin debris following nuclear rupture.
    karyolysis
  21. Ultrastructurally, cells undergoing oncotic necrosis have dilation of the __________, loss of ________, breakdown of _________, and rupture of __________.
    endoplasmic reticulum; cell surface extensions; cell membranes; nuclear and plasma membranes
  22. With coagulation necrosis, cells are ______ and have _________; it tends to result from ________ and ________; the main morphologic features have a _________ appearance.
    dead; little detail; ischemia; toxicants; "cooked"
  23. Special form of coagulation necrosis of muscle (skeletal or cardiac).
    Zenker's necrosis
  24. Coagulative necrosis due to sudden-onset cessation of blood supply.
    gangrene
  25. Dry gangrene affects ________ and results from _______________.
    extremities; severe peripheral vasoconstriction (cold)
  26. Moist ("gas") gangrene affects __________ after which __________ produce ______ in situ.
    internal organs; invading bacteria; gas
  27. coagulative necrosis with release of fatty acids and cholesterol, which react with metal ions to produce insoluble, toxic soaps (saponification).
    fat necrosis
  28. Fat necrosis usually results from... (3)
    physical trauma, release of pancreatic enzymes, toxicity of oxygen free radicals due to consumption of rancid fats
  29. With caseous necrosis, affected tissue has a ________ texture with loss of ________ and is often surrounded by _________ and/or _________.
    caseous ("cottage-cheesy"); tissue structure; fibrous capsules; mineralization
  30. With caseous necrosis __________ is prominent due to a __________ reaction.
    inflammation; granulomatous
  31. Caseous necrosis tends to result from ___(3)___.
    intracellular bacteria, fungi, and protozoa
  32. With liquefactive necrosis, __________ is prominent and ________ is lost.
    inflammation; tissue architecture
  33. Liquefactive necrosis tends to result from ___________, which attract ___________; it is common in _______ tissues (called _______).
    bacteria infection; neutrophils; neural; malacia
  34. All forms of necrosis pass through an initial __________ stage.
    coagulative
  35. Some degree of inflammation almost always accompanies _________; lesions tend to spread over time as _________ accumulate.
    oncotic necrosis; neutrophils
  36. Fibrosis is a response by the ____________; it results from a __________ influx producing ________ to fill residual defects left by dead cells; it is linked mechanistically to __________.
    supporting connective tissue stroma; fibroblast; collagen; inflammation
  37. Fibrosis prevents ___________ and ___________.
    orderly regeneration; full restoration
  38. Mineralization (calcification) is the deposition of __________; the cations involved are ___(3)___; it requires __________.
    mineral salts; Ca, Mg, K; an intact blood suppy
  39. The final common pathogenesis of necrosis causes irreversible damage to the _______ (mineralization of ______ and lysis); this leads to permanent disruption of __________.
    mitochondria; cristae; ATP production
  40. With necrosis, holes develop on _________, there is ________ dissolution, and ultimately __________.
    cell membranes; nuclear; cell death
  41. With necrosis, prominent lesions imply a diffuse that has been...
    present for an extended period
  42. Necrotic insults are ______ and/or ______ than insults that cause degeneration.
    more severe; last longer
  43. Necrosis results in the release of _________, indicating a potential ___________ of a __________.
    enzymes; localization; systemic disease process
  44. Necrotic tissue does not repair, but the gap left by tissue death may be filled by... (3)
    proliferation of adjacent cells, proliferation of stroma ("scar formation"), nothing
  45. Common etiologies leading to necrosis: (5)
    cell deprivation of glucose or oxygen, cell overload by buildup of metabolic byproducts, immunologic/inflammatory reactions, kinetic energy (heat, cold, pressure, trauma, radiation), toxic agents
  46. An orderly process of programmed cell death; normal biological process.
    apoptotic necrosis
  47. Apoptosis normally occurs for what 3 reasons?
    to prune unneeded cells during development, to remove cells in adult tissues during regression after period of increased function, induced by certain viral infections
  48. Disease associated w/ apoptosis may arise due to... (2)
    induced apoptosis or lack of apoptosis
  49. Macroscopically, apoptosis may lead to substantial ______________ during development.
    remodeling of tissue contours
  50. Microscopically, tissues undergoing apoptotic necrosis are not affected _________.
    uniformly throughout
  51. With apoptosis, there is early degradation of ________, _________ condensation within an _________, and cytoplasmic ____________ due to protein coagulation.
    DNA; nuclear; intact nuclear membrane; hypereosinophilia
  52. With apoptosis, there is no ____________.
    inflammatory influx
  53. 2 methods for diagnosis of apoptotic necrosis.
    immunohistochemistry (isolates caspases), TdT (detects fragmented DNA)
  54. At an ultrastructural level, apoptosis causes dilation of the ___________, condensation of __________ and ___________, and membrane ___________.
    endoplasmic reticulum; structurally intact organelles; chromatin; blebbing (zeiosis)
  55. Apoptosis causes __________ disruption and release of _________; this activates __________ [internal pathogenesis].
    mitochondrial; cytochrome C; cytosolic caspases
  56. What external signal can activate apoptosis?
    Fas
  57. Imbalanced apoptosis may lead to __________ or ___________.
    early senescence; neoplasia

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