Patho- Irreversible Cell Damage.txt
Card Set Information
Patho- Irreversible Cell Damage.txt
vetmed irreversible damage
The death of cells in a dead animal; spontaneous disintegration of tissues.
Autolysis occurs in...
all cells and tissues, especially rapid in locations with high enzyme content and faster at high temps
rigidity of the body due to contraction of the musculature.
blue-purple coloring of the low tissues and organs due to post mortem congestion.
progressive creptius of tissue via formation of large gas bubbles by putrefying bacteria.
Post mortem, tissue discoloration occurs via _________.
Liquefaction is a _______ post mortem.
The pathogenesis of autolysis occurs after _______, there is cessation of ________, and accrual of ___________ and rupture of ________, and invasion of ___________.
death; blood flow; acidic metabolic byproducts; lysozymes; putrefying microbes
In the absence of life, __________ must ensue.
Death of cells in a living animal.
cell death by swelling.
Oncotic necrosis is a process that is __________; it incites _______ and _________, leading to ___________; it is often incited by __________.
uncontrolled; inflammation; fibrosis; permanent loss of organ function; exogenous agents
cell death by shrinkage with ingestion by adjacent cells.
Apoptosis is a process that is ________; it does not result in ________, _________, or ________.
tightly regulated; inflammation; scarring; permanent impact
What are gross characteristics of oncotic necrosis? (4)
irregular, pale foci, soft (loss of tensile strength), focus may have red or pale rim, cavitation
At the microscopic level, oncotic necrosis tissue is not ________ throughout; cells swell due to...
affected uniformly; altered ionic gradients and an influx of water
At the microscopic level, cells affected by oncotic necrosis have loss of __________, the nucleus exhibits ___________, there is cytoplamic _________, and cell _________.
internal structural detail; clumping of chromatin; hypereosinophilia; fragmentation
degeneration of the nucleus associated with chromosome clumping and nuclear condensation.
rupture of the cell nucleus with disintegration of chromatin.
dissolution of the chromatin debris following nuclear rupture.
Ultrastructurally, cells undergoing oncotic necrosis have dilation of the __________, loss of ________, breakdown of _________, and rupture of __________.
endoplasmic reticulum; cell surface extensions; cell membranes; nuclear and plasma membranes
With coagulation necrosis, cells are ______ and have _________; it tends to result from ________ and ________; the main morphologic features have a _________ appearance.
dead; little detail; ischemia; toxicants; "cooked"
Special form of coagulation necrosis of muscle (skeletal or cardiac).
Coagulative necrosis due to sudden-onset cessation of blood supply.
Dry gangrene affects ________ and results from _______________.
extremities; severe peripheral vasoconstriction (cold)
Moist ("gas") gangrene affects __________ after which __________ produce ______ in situ.
internal organs; invading bacteria; gas
coagulative necrosis with release of fatty acids and cholesterol, which react with metal ions to produce insoluble, toxic soaps (saponification).
Fat necrosis usually results from... (3)
physical trauma, release of pancreatic enzymes, toxicity of oxygen free radicals due to consumption of rancid fats
With caseous necrosis, affected tissue has a ________ texture with loss of ________ and is often surrounded by _________ and/or _________.
caseous ("cottage-cheesy"); tissue structure; fibrous capsules; mineralization
With caseous necrosis __________ is prominent due to a __________ reaction.
Caseous necrosis tends to result from ___(3)___.
intracellular bacteria, fungi, and protozoa
With liquefactive necrosis, __________ is prominent and ________ is lost.
inflammation; tissue architecture
Liquefactive necrosis tends to result from ___________, which attract ___________; it is common in _______ tissues (called _______).
bacteria infection; neutrophils; neural; malacia
All forms of necrosis pass through an initial __________ stage.
Some degree of inflammation almost always accompanies _________; lesions tend to spread over time as _________ accumulate.
oncotic necrosis; neutrophils
Fibrosis is a response by the ____________; it results from a __________ influx producing ________ to fill residual defects left by dead cells; it is linked mechanistically to __________.
supporting connective tissue stroma; fibroblast; collagen; inflammation
Fibrosis prevents ___________ and ___________.
orderly regeneration; full restoration
Mineralization (calcification) is the deposition of __________; the cations involved are ___(3)___; it requires __________.
mineral salts; Ca, Mg, K; an intact blood suppy
The final common pathogenesis of necrosis causes irreversible damage to the _______ (mineralization of ______ and lysis); this leads to permanent disruption of __________.
mitochondria; cristae; ATP production
With necrosis, holes develop on _________, there is ________ dissolution, and ultimately __________.
cell membranes; nuclear; cell death
With necrosis, prominent lesions imply a diffuse that has been...
present for an extended period
Necrotic insults are ______ and/or ______ than insults that cause degeneration.
more severe; last longer
Necrosis results in the release of _________, indicating a potential ___________ of a __________.
enzymes; localization; systemic disease process
Necrotic tissue does not repair, but the gap left by tissue death may be filled by... (3)
proliferation of adjacent cells, proliferation of stroma ("scar formation"), nothing
Common etiologies leading to necrosis: (5)
cell deprivation of glucose or oxygen, cell overload by buildup of metabolic byproducts, immunologic/inflammatory reactions, kinetic energy (heat, cold, pressure, trauma, radiation), toxic agents
An orderly process of programmed cell death; normal biological process.
Apoptosis normally occurs for what 3 reasons?
to prune unneeded cells during development, to remove cells in adult tissues during regression after period of increased function, induced by certain viral infections
Disease associated w/ apoptosis may arise due to... (2)
induced apoptosis or lack of apoptosis
Macroscopically, apoptosis may lead to substantial ______________ during development.
remodeling of tissue contours
Microscopically, tissues undergoing apoptotic necrosis are not affected _________.
With apoptosis, there is early degradation of ________, _________ condensation within an _________, and cytoplasmic ____________ due to protein coagulation.
DNA; nuclear; intact nuclear membrane; hypereosinophilia
With apoptosis, there is no ____________.
2 methods for diagnosis of apoptotic necrosis.
immunohistochemistry (isolates caspases), TdT (detects fragmented DNA)
At an ultrastructural level, apoptosis causes dilation of the ___________, condensation of __________ and ___________, and membrane ___________.
endoplasmic reticulum; structurally intact organelles; chromatin; blebbing (zeiosis)
Apoptosis causes __________ disruption and release of _________; this activates __________ [internal pathogenesis].
mitochondrial; cytochrome C; cytosolic caspases
What external signal can activate apoptosis?
Imbalanced apoptosis may lead to __________ or ___________.
early senescence; neoplasia