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What are the best types of questions?
- Knowledge gained by interviewing the general population and people with special needs
- Open are good for more accurate but less complete answers
- As the questions get more specific, answers get more complete but less accurate Describe him > was his shirt red?
Are the police good at interviewing witnesses?
- No (Fisher et al, 1987)
- 11 interruptions on average
- Only 3 open questions
- This impacts on concentration, establishes a question-answer format and can confuse some witnesses
What is cognitive interviewing?
- An interviewing tool for enhancing testimony- Geiselman et al (1984)
- Ask witness to mentally revisit the event and the mental state they were in to make the features of encoding and feedback more similar to reduce distortion (Memon & Bull, 1991)
- Encourage the reporting of every detail, no matter how small (could be important and leads to further recall)
- Change up the narrative and start from different points, could lead to further recall and a different perspective
What is enhanced cognitive interviewing?
- Fisher et al (1987)
- Same structure as the CI but with more social aspects
- Establish a rapport
- Transfer control to the witness
- Make questions compatible with mental capabilities
- Encourage focused retrieval and the use of imagery
Does Cognitive interviewing work?
Kohnken et al. (1994) –cognitive interview (CI) produces around 25-35% more information than standard interview
Milne and Bull, (2002): Kids shown video of a crash then interviewed 48 hours later with different CI techniques The most effective tenet was reporting everything, however other measures were no more effective than the instruction to 'try again'
- Fisher et al. (1989) – US Field test of 7 trained officers
- – 47% more information elicited compared to controls
- Clifford and George (1996) – UK field study
- – Different training conditions (conversation mgmt, CI), control group
- – CI showed 55% improvement compared to self, 14% compared to ctrls
- – No impact of conversation management training
- – Thus, not result of novelty or Hawthorne effect
Do the police like cognitive interviews?
- Yes and no (Kebbell & Wagstaff, 1998)
- 90% thought it produced more information
- 93% felt that it took too long
- 54% said they rarely had time to conduct a good interview
- Some elements are more useful than others (establishing a rapport vs differential order)
- Dando, Wilcock & Milne (2008): police never change perspective or do recall in different order (40 and 60% of responses), the highest number of people said they built rapport all of the time (54.17%)
How does hypnosis help with interviewing?
- Establish rapport
- Induce hypnosis
- Deepen hypnosis
- Use memory enhancing techniques such as asking them to visualise the events like a tv show
- 'Awaken repressed memories'
Does hypnosis improve interviewing?
- Yes -Vingoe (1995)- 10 experts said it improved eyewitness memory
- No- Kebbell & Wagstaff (1998)- increases in recall associated with decreases in accuracy, false confidence in incorrect info and increased suggestibility