Card Set Information
Chapter 17 Topics 12-16 + Lab
Macrophages of the liver.
What function does bile perform?
Emulsifies fats, and facilitates the absorption of fat soluble vitamins
This is the breaking of fat globules into smaller droplets.
These are formed when bile is too concentrated, hepatic cells secrete too much cholesterol, or if the gallbladder is inflamed.
What are the 3 areas of the small intestine in order?
1) Duodenum 2) Jejunum 3) Ileum
These produce digestive enzymes and make up the bulk of the pancreas.
What are the functions of trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase?
To digest proteins
These are granules that store pancreatic enzymes.
Give 2 actions the bicarbonate performs which makes it so important in the digestive process.
1) Neutralizes acids so the lining isn't damaged 2) Makes enzymes able to function (by making lining alkaline)
How is the mucosa of the small intestine specialized to support its function?
The villi on the mucosa increase the surface area, so as to absorb better
List the 5 major enzymes which are found embedded in the membranes of the small intestine.
1) Peptidase 2) Sucrase 3) Maltase 4) Lactase 5) Intestinal Lipase
This enzyme in the membrane of the small intestine digests peptides into amino acids.
Rapid sweeping of the contents into the large intestine is known as what?
What are the 4 parts of the large intestine?
1) Cecum 2) Colon 3) Rectum 4) Anal Canal
What are the 4 parts of the colon?
1) Ascending Colon 2) Transverse Colon 3) Descending Colon 4) Sigmoid Colon
What is the difference between the external and internal anal sphincters?
The internal is composed of smooth muscle and has involuntary control; the external is composed of skeletal muscle and has voluntary control.
Large protein molecules produced by body cells that increase the rate of a chemical reaction without becoming part of the product.
Digestive enzymes, which break down organic food molecules.
Organic food molecules what are broken down by its own hydrolytic enzyme; the substance that the enzyme acts on.
The enzyme produced by the salivary glands and secreted into the mouth to break down carbohydrates.
With positive controls, a _____ result is expected; with negative controls, a _____ result is expected.
The chemical method of detecting the presence of digested substances.
The enzyme has a pocket called the _____, which the substrate(s) must fit into temporarily for catalysts to occur.
A polysaccharide which provides rigidity to a plant's cell walls.
2 or more amino acids linked together by a peptide bond is called what?
A peptide chain containing 10 to 100 amino acids is called what?
A synthetic peptide that releases a yellow dye product when hydrolyzed.