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What are the different question taboos?
- Kebbell & Johnson (2000)
- Complex Negatives: 'Did the woman have black hair?' (simplified to 'did the woman have black hair?') - 30% less accurate than simplified
- Complex double negatives: 'Is it not true to say that the woman wasn't wearing dark trousers?'- 30% less accurate
- Leading questions: 'The attack happened in the park, didn't it?'- >10% less
- Complex vocabulary: 'Did the female flee from the perpetrator?'- 4% less
- Complex syntax: 'Would it be correct to assume that the woman wearing a coat in the incident's shoe fell off?' 3% less
- Multipart question: 'Was it raining, did you hear thunder?'- 47% less
Does confidence mean accuracy?
- Maybe- Cutler et al (1987)
- Weak correlation between identification accuracy and confidence
- Confidence level is significantly higher for correct choosers
- Kebell, Evans & Johnson (2010)
- Complex or simple questions posed by lawyers
- More confident in correct answers in simplified questions
- More confident in incorrect ones for complex questions
What must be considered when interviewing witnesses with learning difficulties?
- More vulnerable to different question types as they have more cognitive limitations (complex questions) and more social desirability bias (leading questions)
- Less complete answers but no less accurate: Kebbell and Hatton (1999)
- 16 cases with and 16 without learning difficulties analysed
- Lawyers did not adapt questioning style for people with learning difficulties, very few differences in question types
- Used strategies to discredit witnesses in cross examination despite learning difficulties using yes/no leading questions
- More supportive and friendly but not completely effective at maximising accuracy and completeness
How do extraneous factors affect judgments?
- Danzinger et al (2011)
- Israeli parole hearings analysed
- Rulings require executive functions and are cognitively fatiguing
- Positive rulings examined
- Dropped from 65% to nearly 0% then back up to 65% after a break