ChapterThirteen The Nervous System terms

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ChapterThirteen The Nervous System terms
2015-04-07 17:55:42
NervousSystem Terms

Chapter Thirteen The Nervous System terms
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  1. Central Nervous System (CNS)
    the brain and spinal cord
  2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
    the nerves and ganglia
  3. homeostasis
    the process of maintaining internal stability
  4. neuron
    a nerve cell
  5. neuroglia
    cells of nervous tissue that support neurons. they make up most of the brain and spinal cord
  6. aphasia
    the inability to speak
  7. cephalagia
    the clinical term for a headache, or a generalized pain in the region of the head.
  8. convulsion
    a series of involuntary muscular spasms
  9. hyperalgesia
    an extreme sensitivity to painful stimuli
  10. hypoalgesia
    an extreme lack of sensitivity to normally painful stimuli
  11. hyperesthesia
    an abnormal increase in sensitivity to a stimulus
  12. neuralgia
    condition of pain in a nerve
  13. neurasthenia
    generalized body fatigue
  14. paresthesia
    the abnormal sensation of numbness and tingling
  15. polyneuralgia
    condition of pain in many nerves
  16. syncope
    is a temporary loss of consciousness due to a sudden reduction of blood flow to the brain. Is often called "fainting."
  17. agnosia
    the inability to interpret sensory information
  18. Alzheimer disease (AD)
    a disease characterized by gradual deterioration in brain function
  19. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) (Lou Gehrig disease)
    a disease characterized by progressive atrophy of muscle
  20. autism
    developmental disorder that varies in severity
  21. Bell palsy
    condition characterized by paralysis of the face muscle on one side
  22. cerebellitis
    an inflammation of the cerebellum
  23. cerebral aneurysm
    a bulging wall of a blood vessel in the brain
  24. cerebral atherosclerosis
    accumulation of fatty plaques that cause arteries supplying the brain to gradually close
  25. cerebral embolism
    a moving blood clot in an artery of the brain
  26. cerebral thrombosis
    condition of a stationary blood clot in an artery of the brain
  27. cerebral hemorrhage
    bleeding from cerebral blood vessels
  28. cerebral palsy (CP)
    a condition that appears at birth or shortly afterward as a partial muscle paralysis
  29. cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
    an acute event that is an irreversible death of brain cells caused by inadequate blood supply to the brain
  30. coma
    abnormally decreased conciousness
  31. concussion
    an injury to soft tissue that results from a blow or violent shaking
  32. traumatic brain injury (TBI)
    a severe brain injury often involving bleeding that can result in functional losses and death
  33. encephalitis
    inflammation of the brain
  34. encephalomalacia
    an abnormal softening of brain tissue
  35. epilepsy
    a brain disorder characterized by recurrent seizures, including convulsions and temporary loss of consciousness, that results from sudden, uncontrolled bursts of electrical activity in the brain
  36. glioma
    a tumor of neuroglial cells
  37. hydrocephalus
    a congenital disease characterized by an abnormally increased volume of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain
  38. meningioma
    a benign tumor of the meninges
  39. meningitis
    inflammation of the meninges
  40. meningocele
    a protrusion of the meninges
  41. meningomyelocele
    a protrusion in the meninges and spinal cord
  42. spina bifida
    a congenital defect in which a child is born with a protrusion of the meninges, usually caused by a defect in the skull or spinal column
  43. mulitiple sclerosis (MS)
    a disease characterized by the deterioration of the myelin sheath covering axons within the brain
  44. myelitis
    inflammation of the spinal cord
  45. narcolepsy
    a sleep disorder characterized by sudden uncontrollable episodes of sleep, attacks of paralysis, and hallucinations
  46. neuritis
    inflammation of a nerve
  47. polyneuritis
    inflammation of many nerves at once
  48. neuroma
    a tumor originating from neurons
  49. neuropathy
    a disease affecting any part of the nervous system, such as a cranial nerve, the brain, or the spinal cord
  50. polyneuropathy
    a disease affecting many parts of the nervous system
  51. paraplegia
    a condition of paralysis of the lower body, including both legs
  52. monoplegia
    a condition of paralysis of a single limb
  53. hemiplegia
    a condition of paralysis on one side of the body
  54. quadriplegia
    a condition of paralysis from the neck down including all four limbs
  55. Parkinson disease (PD) parkinsonism
    a chronic degenerative disease of the brain characterized by tremors, rigidity, and shuffling gait
  56. poliomyelitis
    a disease characterized by inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord
  57. rabies
    an acute, often fatal, viral infection of the central nervous system that is spread from saliva of an infected source; it has also been called hydrophobia
  58. ventriculitis
    inflammation of the ventricles of the brain
  59. analgesic
    a common form of pain management; includes aspirin, ibuprofen, and acetaminophen
  60. anesthesia
    the primary type of pain management that is used during surgical procedures
  61. anesthetist
    a specialist trained in the administration of anesthetics
  62. anesthesiologist
    a physician who specializes in anesthesia and management of pain
  63. cerebral angiography
    a diagnostic procedure that reveals blood flow to the brain by X-ray photography
  64. computed tomography (CT scan)
    a procedure that involves the use of a computer to interpret a series of images and construct from them a three-dimensional view of the brain
  65. craniectomy
    the surgical removal of part of the cranium
  66. craniotomy
    a surgical incision through the cranium to provide access to the brain
  67. craniotome
    the surgical knife used to perform craniotomy
  68. echoencephalography (EchoEG)
    a procedure that uses ultrasound technology to record brain structures
  69. effectual drug therapy
    a general type of treatment to manage neurological disorders
  70. antidepressants
    medication that combat depression
  71. electroencephalography (EEG)
    a diagnostic procedure that records electrical impulses of the brain to measure brain activity
  72. epidural
    the injection of the spinal block anesthetic into epidural space external to the spinal cord. It is common procedure to manage pain during painful childbirth labor or as an emergency procedure following severe trauma to the pelvic region
  73. evoked potential studies (EP studies)
    a group of diagnostic tests that measure changes in the brain waves during particular stimuli to determine brain function
  74. ganglionectomy
    surgical removal of a ganglion
  75. lumbar puncture (LP)
    the withdrawal of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the lumbar regions of the spinal cord
  76. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
    a diagnostic procedure in which powerful magnets are used to observe soft tissues in the body
  77. myelogram
    an X-ray photograph of the spinal cord following injection of a contrast dye
  78. myelography
    a procedure of taking an X-ray photograph of the spinal cord following injection of a contrast dye
  79. neurectomy
    the surgical removal of a nerve
  80. neurology
    the branch of medicine specializing in the treatment of disorders affecting the nervous system
  81. neuroscientist
    one who participates in neurological research
  82. neurologist
    a physician who specializes in neurology
  83. neurosurgeon
    physicians who specialize in brain or spinal cord surgery
  84. neurolysis
    the procedure of separating a nerve by removing unwanted adhesions
  85. neuroplasty
    the surgical repair of a nerve
  86. neurorrhaphy
    the suture of a nerve
  87. neurotomy
    incision into a nerve
  88. positron emission tomography (PET)
    a computerized procedure that involves a scan using an injected radioactive chemical to provide a map of blood flow within the body
  89. psychiatry
    the branch of medicine that addresses disorders of the brain resulting in mental, emotional, and behavioral disturbances
  90. psychology
    the study of human (or mind, mental) behavior
  91. psychotherapy
    the technique used in treating behavioral and emotional issues
  92. radicotomy
    a surgical incision into a nerve root, also called rhizotomy
  93. reflex testing
    a series of diagnostic tests performed to observe the body's response to touch stimuli
  94. vagotomy
    the procedure in which several branches of the vagus nerve are severed (with an incision) to reduce acid secretion in the stomach
  95. anxiety disorder
    a mental disorder in which anxiety dominates a person's behavior
  96. attention deficit disorder (ADD)
    a neurological disorder characterized by short attention span and poor concentration
  97. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
    a neurological disorder characterized by short attention span, poor concentration, and hyperactivity; usually associated with school-age children but can also affect adults and makes learning very difficult
  98. bipolar disease
    a mental disorder characterized by alternating periods of high energy and mental confusion with low energy and mental depression
  99. dementia
    an impairment of mental function characterized by memory loss, disorientation, and confusion; it is usually associated with old age, and sometimes accompanies Alzheimer disease
  100. dyslexia
    a reading handicap in which the brain reverses the order of some letters and numbers
  101. mania
    an emotional disorder of abnormally high psychomotor activity
  102. megalomania
    a form of mania in which an individual believes oneself to be a person of great fame or wealth
  103. pyromania
    a form of mania in which an individual has an obsessive fascination with fire
  104. nerosis
    an emotional disorder that involves a counterproductive way of dealing with mental stress
  105. paranoia
    a mental disorder including persistent delusions of persecution that results in mistrust and combativeness; a mental experience of fear without substantive cause
  106. phobia
    an irrational, obsessive fear
  107. posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
    a disorder caused by severe mental strain or emotional trauma that includes sleeplessness, anxiety, and paranoia
  108. psychopathy
    a general term for a mental or emotional disorder
  109. psychosis
    a mental disease characterized by a gross distortion or disorganization of mental capacity
  110. psychosomatic
    the influence of mind over bodily functions, especially disease
  111. schizoprhenia
    a mental condition characterized by delusions, hallucinations, and extensive withdrawal