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What is one major reason computer models are used to simulate the performance of complex systems?
Because they are cost effective.
What are the two main models of computer simulation?
- 1) Continuous dynamic simulation - usually involve people. Real-time. E.g., flight simulator.
- 2) Discrete event simulation - models that use time frames or time slices. Used frequently where queues are involved.
What are rendering algorithms used for?
They are used to create detailed and accurate images. The computing power required for rendering algorithms varies greatly by the method.
Pixel based display technologies cause inherent problems when displaying _____________________.
circles or non-vertical/non-horizontal lines
What is anti-aliasing?
It is a method that combines the colors affecting a certain pixel into a "blended" color that will minimize the appearance of jagged profiles, loss of detail, and disintegrating textures.
What is the problem with using polygons to model 3-D objects?
Many smooth objects aren't necessarily polyhedral so the resulting image looks bad. To solve this problem, a shading algorithm is applied. It progressively blends the shading of adjacent polygons to smooth out the reflection of the virtual light across the surface.
What must be taken into account in order to accurately model lighting effects?
- 1) the position of the virtual light source
- 2) the rendered objects' locations with respect to the light source
What is radiosity?
The fact that light reflects off the surface of some objects and, in turn, illuminates other objects.
What is ray tracing?
- It is a way of rendering graphic images that is very computationally expensive. Rays are cast from the viewer's position through each pixel. The first object that the ray hits is the color that's rendered in that pixel.
- Reflections are calculated by bouncing the ray from the (shiny) object it hit. If it hits another object, the second object will be reflected onto the first object.
- Shadows are calculated by bouncing a ray from the hit object to the scene's light source. If another object is hit on the way, the original object is in shadow.
What is texture mapping?
It is an inexpensive means of placing 2D "wallpaper" around objects. It really has nothing to do with texture.
What is bump mapping?
It gives the illusion of 3D texture in the resulting lighting effects.
What is character animation?
It is a method that allows a graphics artist to manipulate specific vertices on an animated model to make the model behave in a lifelike manner.
What are embedded systems? Give a few examples.
- Embedded systems are special-purpose computer systems that are designed to perform a specific list of dedicated tasks.
- They often have real-time performance constraints (need an operator).
- Often used firmware.
- i.e., microwaves, telephones, GPS
What are fractals used for?
They are a way of rendering landscapes, among other things.