Endocrine System (Exam 2)

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michaelirby98
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300219
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Endocrine System (Exam 2)
Updated:
2015-04-07 22:37:58
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Physio
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Physiology lecture
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Physio
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  1. List the 7 Trpoic hormones secreted by hypothalamus and their abbreviation
    • 1. Prolactin Releasing Hormone (PRH)
    • 2. Prolactin Inhibiting Hormone (PIH)
    • 3.Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH)
    • 4. Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH)
    • 5. Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH)
    • 6. Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH)
    • 7.Growth Inhibiting Releasing Hormone (GIRH)
  2. List the 6 tropic Hormones released by the Anterior Pituitary and abbreviation
    • 1.Prolactin (PRL)
    • 2. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
    • 3. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
    • 4. Follicle Stim Hormone (FSH)
    • 5. Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
    • 6. Growth Hormone
  3. List the two hormones released by posterior pituitary
    • Antidiuretic Hormone
    • Oxytocin
  4. PRL
    • Prolactin
    • Acts on breasts to release estrogens
    • Activated/ Inactivated by hormone from hypothalamus  (PIH, PRH)
  5. LH
    • Luteinizing Hormone 
    • Acts on ovaries and testes to stimulate sex hormone secretion, testosterone secretion, and ovulation
    • Activated by Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH)
  6. FSH
    • Follicle Stim Hormone 
    • Promotes gamete production and estrogen in females
    • Activated by Gonadotropin RH (GnRH)
  7. ACTH
    • Adrenocorticotropic Hormone 
    • Acts on adrenal cortex to release glucocorticoids, androgens and aldosterone
    • Activated by corticotropin RH (CRH)
  8. TSH
    • Thyroid Stimulating Hormone 
    • Stimulates secretion of T4 and T3 from thyroid 
    • Activated by Thyrotropin RH (TRH)
  9. GH
    • Growth Hormone 
    • Promotes protein synthesis and growth.
    • Activated/Inhibited by Somatostatin or GHRH
  10. CRH
    • Corticotropin releasing hormone
    • Stimulates secretion of ACTH
  11. PIH PRH
    • Prolactin inhibiting/releasing hormone 
    • Stimulates secretion/inhibits of prolactin
  12. TRH
    • Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone
    • Stimulates secretion of TSH
  13. GnRH
    • Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone 
    • Stimulated secretion of FSH and LH
  14. GHRH GHIH
    • Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone
    • Growth Hormone Inhibiting Hormone 
    • Stimulates or inhibits the secretion of GH
  15. Oxytocin
    • Produced by hypothalamus, released by posterior pituitary 
    • Secreted by supraoptic nucleus 
    • Targets uterus and breasts (milk expulsion)
  16. ADH
    • Antidiuretic Hormone 
    • Produced by hypothalamus, released by posterior pituitary
    • Secreted by Paraventricular Nucleus 
    • Targets kidneys to increase water reabsorption
  17. 4 steps of the Portal system
    • 1. neurosecretory cells release hormones in 1st capillary bed 
    • 2. 1st capillary bed leads to portal vein, to 2nd capillary bed in AP
    • 3. Hormones exits capillaries to stimulate AP endocrine cells 
    • 4. AP endocrine cells secrete hormones in capillaries and through body.
  18. Thyroid
    • Ventral surface of trachea 
    • Secretes T4, T3, and calcitonin 
    • Increases metabolism, lowers Ca2+ levels in bloods and deposits in bone
  19. Parathyroid
    • 4 small glands behind thyroid 
    • Secretes PTH - Parathyroid Hormone 
    • Increase blood Ca2+ by dissolution from bones and decreased urinary excretion
  20. Pineal Gland
    • Epithelial tissue in brain 
    • Secretes melatonin 
    • Regulates circadian rhythm
  21. Thymus
    • Two lobed structure in front of heart 
    • Secretes thymosin 
    • Results in T cell functional regulation
  22. Adrenal Cortex
    • Outer layer 
    • Secretes glucocorticoids, androgens, and aldosterone 
    • Stimulates Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretion
    • Catabolism of fats and proteins, raises blood glucose, STRESS RESPONSE
    • Androgens promote sex drive
  23. Adrenal Medulla
    • Inner core
    • Secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine 
    • Results in increased heart rate and metabolism of energy sources
  24. Pancreas
    • Exocrine and endocrine gland below stomach 
    • Exocrine cells: Acinar cells
    • Endocrine: Alpha cells, beta cells, delta cells, F cells
  25. Pancreas exocrine cells
    • Acinar cells
    • Secretes digestive enzymes to GI tract
  26. Pancreas endocrine cells
    • Alpha Cells: secretes glucogon to raise blood glucose levels
    • Beta Cells: Secretes insulin to lower glucose levels and promotes energy storage 
    • Delta Cells: Secretes somatostatin to inhibit secretion of pancreatic hormone
    • F cells: Secretes pancreatic polypeptide to inhibit exocrine secretions

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