Chemical Messenger (Exam 2)

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Author:
michaelirby98
ID:
300226
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Chemical Messenger (Exam 2)
Updated:
2015-04-07 22:37:22
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Physio
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Physiology Lecture
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Physio
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  1. 2 types of intracellular communication
    • 1. Direct (touching)- through gap junctions connecting adjacent cells
    • 2. Indirect- through chemical messengers
  2. 3 functional classes of chemical messengers
    • Paracrines
    • Neurotransmitters 
    • Hormones
  3. Paracrine
    • Chemicals that communicate with neighboring cells (tissue level)
    • Short distance 
    • Through diffusion
    • Autocrines: chemicals that act on the same cell that secreted them
    • (growth factor, clotting factors, cytokines)
  4. Neurotransmitters
    • Chemicals released by neurons -> synapse -> target cell
    • Short distance 
    • Through diffusion
    • (acetylcholine)
  5. Hormones
    • Chemicals released by endocrine glands or neurosecretory neuron -> ISF -> blood
    • Long distance 
    • Via blood
  6. List the 5 chemical classes
    • Amino acids
    • Amines
    • Peptide 
    • Steroids
    • Ecosinoids
  7. Amino Acids
    • Basic monomer for proteins 
    • Lipophobic 
    • Functional class: Neurotransmitter
    • (aspertate, glycine, GABA)
  8. Amines
    • Derived from amino acids 
    • Contain NH2 group
    • Lipophobic 
    • Functional Class:paracrine, NT, Hormone
    • (Dopamine, serotonin, norepi, epi, histamine)
  9. Peptide and Proteins
    • Chain of amino acids 
    • Most common
    • Lipophobic 
    • Functional Class: Paracrines, NT, Hormones
    • (cytokines)
  10. Steroids
    • Derived from cholesterol 
    • Lipophillic 
    • Functional class: HORMONES ONLY
    • (testosterone, cortisol, aldosterone, progesterone)
  11. Eicosanoids
    • Derived from fatty acids (arachidonic acid)
    • Lipophillic 
    • Functional Class: Paracrines ONLY
    • (prostaglandins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes)
  12. Signal transduction
    • Source releases ligand
    • Travels to target cell
    • Ligands then bind to receptors either on/in cell -> functional change
  13. Properties of cell receptors
    • Messenger specific 
    • Multiple receptor types present in/on cell
    • The more interactions the greater the effect
  14. What factors affect interaction with chemical messengers
    • Messenger concentration
    • Number of receptors 
    • Affinity (how much the receptor WANTS to bind)
  15. Intracellular Mediated response
    • Receptor is inside cell
    • Messenger in lipophillic 
    • For gene activation or inhibition 
    • Effects are slow but long lasting
  16. Membrane Receptor Mediated Response
    • Receptors are on membrane
    • Messengers are lipophobic 
    • 3 categories: Channel linked, Enzyme linked, and G protein linked
  17. Channel- Linked membrane Mediated response
    • Receptors act as a channel
    • Once activated by messenger, channel opens
  18. Enzyme Linked membrane mediated response
    • Receptor acts as an intracellular enzyme 
    • Activates enzymes
  19. G Protein linked membrane mediated response
    • Receptor is linked to a group of proteins (G-group) in membrane
    • Activates G protein -> activates another membrane bound protein (channels or enzymes)
  20. Second messengers
    • Intracellular molecule produced/ entered as a response to an extracellular messenger
    • Amplifies signal
    • Most common is Ca2+
    • Most important is cAMP.
  21. Long distance communication
    • Required to regulate all body activities 
    • By: endocrine system to release hormones (Slow) or Nervous system to target cells with NT (fast)

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