Test 2 Lecture 14

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Test 2 Lecture 14
2015-04-08 10:25:34
lecture 14

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  1. In the Land of the Rising Sun-
    The North American Southeast
    • includes eastern woodlands of the Continental United States. 
    • comprised of states east of eastern
    • Texas, southeastern Oklahoma, parts of Gulf Coast, Virginia and the Carolinas (except for northeastern corner)
    • subtropical humid climate, mild winters (not the case throughout the southeast, was much drier during the Pleistocene)
    • 2 major physiographical regions - Appalachians and coastal plains
  2. Archaic Southeast
    • a lot of fieldwork done in this area
    • tons of archaic sites with good seriation of lithic materials
    • Lithic traits associated with the transition to the Archaic in the Eastern Woodlands.
    • 1- Notched and stemmed projectile points
    • 2- Use of a wider range of raw materials
    • 3- Predominant use of locally available
    • stone.
    • 4- Less re-sharpening and other
    • maintenance of chipped stone tools
    • 5- Increase in ground and polished stone
    • items.

    • Subsistence relied on broad-spectrum
    • foraging
    • included a lot of nuts such as hickory nuts and acorns, and to a lesser extent hazelnuts, chestnuts, and beechnuts.
    • exploitation of shellfish, not so much fishing
  3. After archaic each region in North america develops its own ______
  4. Life at the Edge: The Anasazi
    • ☀defined and applied by rancher Richard wetherill
    • ☀familiar with navajo language
    • ☀applied this term to whoever
    • built mesa verde
    • ☀term adopted by Alfred kidder
    • ☀problematic term
    • ☀meaning “The Ancient Ones” (although it originally meant “the ancient ancestors of our enemies”) in Navajo language
    • ☀applied to Ancestral Pueblos peoples in the American Southwest.
    • ☀debated; overall accepted emergence 500 AD during basketmaker II period
  5. The Pecos Classification
    • organized by Alfred Kidder to define cultural groups and time periods of the American Southwest
    • BasketmakerI (1500BC- 50 AD)
    • BasketmakerII (50-500AD) ---localized tradition of ancestral pueblos, but still with much debate
    • BasketmakerIII (500-750AD)
    • Pueblo I  (750-900 AD)
    • Pueblo II (900-1150AD)
    • Pueblo III (1150-1350)
    • Pueblo IV (1350-1600)
    • Pueblo V (1600-Present)
  6. Basket maker I (1500 BC -50 AD)
    • marks end of the Archaic in the Southwest
    • subsistence strategies moved slowly from hunting and gathering to maize cultivation
    • pre-ceramic period
    • making vessels through basketry
    • two rod and bundle method - 2 rods inside  weaved together to make a bundle
    • by the end of basketmaker 1 people develop ceramic technology
    • standard pithouses
  7. basket maker II
    • Full adoption of agriculture centered on maize, beans, and squash.
    • supplemented by wild plants as well as animals
    • Maize and bean combination is important  because beans contain the amino acid lysine,which helps humans digest the protein available in corn
    • beans return nitrogen to the soil depleted by maize.
    • emergence of symbolic behaviors such as newspaper rock

    • ceramics more definitive here
    • can be used to date materials very porous,
    • can be ground down to determine what it contained
    • made by coil and scrape method
    • corrugated ridges and grooves
    • color of clay could tell you mineral contents and atmosphere of firing
    • 2 types of atmosphere - oxidizing or reducing atmosphere (no oxygen)
    • oxidizing - red (a lot of iron) or beige
    • reducing atmosphere - dark black (no iron), grey (a lot of iron)
    • easiest way to fire a pot is to dig a hole
    • other ceramics used great as tempering material otherwise sand, reeds, shell used as a temper
    • youcan tell if its coiled if it doesnt have wheel marks by finger imprints, scraping your finger up and down you could feel the coils
    • fired below 800 degree centigrade
    • if it is licked it will stick to your tongue because its porous