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- The ability to control resources in accordance with one’s own interests and/or benefit.
- - power saturates human relationships
- - person in power has a lot of agency- not in power means limited agency
- - exploit power in different ways
- - we dont have equal power
- - social organization and social hierarchies
- - exercised through networks
3 types of power
how does power manifest archeaologically?
- resources - food, material, labor, environment
- health - diffeent diets, less engaged in hard labor, more access to resources
- mortuary - rituals, burials
economic power definition
Control over basic resources in order to create or maintain social inequality
the more people are removed the more dependent people get over others which can lead to social inequality
ex. irrigation systems, food surplus
military or coercive power definition
The use or threat of violence to create inequality and maintain control
- humans have history of physical intimidation and physical violence that manifests archaeologically through public executions, tools and technlogy or inflicting pain and
- suffering. Walls dont mean violence, but it means someone is concerned
ex. weapons, walls
Ideological power definition
Ideas and values thatare strategically used to create inequality and maintain control.
ex. temples, icons
Hopewell and power?
- They are building mounds that require people, labor and resources.
- indicates a presence of a dictating rank ordering who, what, when, and where.
- This doesn’t mean its only one person giving the orders, but it could also be an entire group that involves some form of hierarchy and decision making
Other things in Hopewell that indicate social stratification & rank?
The spoke like wheel in Creol mound, individuals for ideological reasons get inscribed into this mound. People of significant rank
possess head plates, celts, ear spools, and breast plates.
Items of stratification and rank in Hopewell?
Head plates – significant rank; thinly hammered out copper plates running down the scalp – a decoration for adornment.
Celts – axe head or ground stone
head plate and celts not found together
ear spools and breast plates - below the people with headplates and celts, greater rank than commoners