Geography Health

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Author:
shotguniall
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300248
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Geography Health
Updated:
2015-04-30 12:29:40
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geography health
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AS-LEVEL
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Health section
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  1. Define: health
    Physical, mental and social well-being as well as the absence of disease
  2. Define: Malnutrition
    Condition resulting from a form of dietary deficiency, not having enough nutrients. This can be caused by a range of factors including calorie intake, quantity of food or the absence of key vitamins and minerals in a diet such as iron or vitamin C.
  3. Define: Undernourishment
    a measure of hunger referring simply to not having enough food to develop or function normally. In children it can stunt both physical and mental growth and can lead to major health problems.
  4. Define: Famine
    Is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including climatic factors which lead to crop failure, population unbalance, war or government policies.
  5. Define: Disease of affluence
    Term sometimes given to selected diseases (usually non-communicable) and other health conditions which are commonly to be a result of increasing wealth in a society. Such as obesity
  6. Define: Disease of poverty
    Conditions, often communicable, which occur as a direct result of a lack of education, access to adequate nutrition, lack of access to healthcare
  7. Define: Standard of living
    Based on income - the level of wealth, comfort, material goods and necessities available to a certain group of people in a certain geographic area
  8. Define: Quality of life
    Looking at an individual’s environment, physical and mental health, education, recreation and leisure time and social belonging as well as wealth and employment
  9. Define: Obesity
    The state where a person has too much body fat and a BMI of 30 or more usually due to a high calorie and low exercise lifestyle
  10. Define: Food security
    A reliable food supply that contains sufficient nutritional elements to keep a person healthy
  11. Define: HALE (health adjusted life expectancy)
    measurement developed by WHO. Estimates the number of healthy years an individual is expected to live, subtracted by the number of ill years.
  12. Define: Morbidity
    The frequency of disease, illness, injury and disability within a population
  13. DEFINE: Mortality
    Deaths as a component to population change
  14. DEFINE: Attack rate
    The number of people who contract a disease over a period of time
  15. DEFINE: Case-mortality rate
    Measures severity of a disease.The proportion of reported cases of a specific disease or condition which are fatal within a specific time
  16. Give two diseases that effect both MEDCs and LEDCs the most
    • Coronary heart disease
    • Lung disease 

    (these make up 1/3 or all deaths in the world)
  17. Give examples of diseases that cause deaths in MEDCs
    • Cancer
    • Alzheimer's disease
    • Type 2 diabetes
  18. Give examples of diseases that cause deaths in LEDCs
    • Diarrhoea
    • Malaria
    • HIV/AIDS
    • TB
  19. What are perinatal conditions?
    • Conditions such as poor maternal health, lack of nutrition and infections that lead to deaths of babies during the first week of life.
    • Account for 1 in 5 deaths in LEDCs
  20. Approximately what percentage of the world's HIV/AIDS is in Sub-Saharan Africa?
    60%
  21. What percentage of deaths in MEDCs are from communicable diseases, such as HIV/AIDS?
    23%

    (55% in LEDCs)
  22. What is the average world IMR?
    46 per 1000
  23. What are the four main risk factors affecting morbidity in LEDCs?
    • Undernourishment
    • The environment (no sanitation, no clean water)
    • Poor standards of living (indoor smoke from wood burning etc) 
    • Social disease such as HIV/AIDS
  24. What are the main risk factors affecting morbidity in LEDCs?
    • Blood pressure
    • Physical inactivity
    • Leisure activities (smoking and drinking) 
    • Diet
  25. What is the worldwide average life expectancy?
    • 70 years 
    • (2012)
  26. How might life expectancy vary within the same country?
    • Wealth and quality of life
    • Access to healthcare
    • Race or ethnic group
  27. How many children in the world are malnourished?
    200 million
  28. How many people die from malaria each year?
    1.3million +
  29. Are health services evenly distributed over the world?
    • No. 
    • Even within countries urban areas have much higher numbers of health workers than rural areas
  30. Which countries have the highest life expectancy?
    • Australia, Italy, Japan
    • (all have 82 years)
  31. Which countries have the lowest life expectancy?
    Angola, Afghanistan, Nigeria
  32. Which country has the highest number of doctors per 100,000?
    Cuba
  33. What factors influence infant mortality rate?
    • Food and diet
    • Quality of and access to health care
    • Female quality and status
    • Poverty level
  34. What factors influence life expectancy?
    • Stress level
    • Health care access and standard
    • Living conditions
    • Education
    • Disease
    • Hygiene 
    • Smoking/drinking/drugs
  35. What is the epidemiological transition?
    A country's health profile changing from infectious or contagious diseases (more commonly found in LEDCs) to degenerative diseases (more commonly found in MEDCs)
  36. Define: infectious disease
    Illness caused by pathogenic micro-organisms, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi which can be spread from one person to another directly or indirectly.
  37. Which country in the world is it where 1 in 3 adults are obese?
    UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
  38. Define: obesity
    The state of having an abnormally high level of body fat and a BMI of 30 or more.
  39. What factors contribute to obesity? (at least 6)
    • Environment (food outlets available etc)
    • Culture
    • Socio-economic status
    • Genetics
    • Diet
    • Physical inactivity
    • Lack of education (about risks and diet)
    • Medication
    • High cost of living vs cheap fast food
  40. What has the USA tried to do in order to control or reduce obesity?
    • Set up The Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity Programme which aims to:
    • increase physical activity
    • increase consumption of fruit and veg
    • decrease sugar intake
    • decrease television watching
  41. How many undernourished people are there in Sub-Saharan Africa?
    • 225 million
    • (2008)
  42. What is undernourishment linked to?
    malnutrition
  43. What are the origins of undernourishment and malnutrition?
    • Poverty
    • Ignorance (inadequate education)
    • Prejudice (men before women, leaving women with undernourished babies)
    • Food, such as protein, too expensive 
    • Poor quality soil 
    • Little rainfall
  44. Does every country, as it is, have the capability of producing sufficient meat for widespread human consumption?
    No, only the USA can really do that atm
  45. What are cycles of misery?
    The concept that once a person is stuck in a poor and malnourished state, they will continue to stay there as their health will deteriorate which will further their malnourished state... etc
  46. How may people get out of poverty/undernourishment/malnutrition?
    • Education (which needs to be funded or provided by NGOs such as WHO)
    • Introduction of healthcare schemes 
    • Making efforts to improve equality
  47. What percentage of the world's population is overweight?
    25%
  48. What are some of the health consequences of obesity? (6)
    • Social anxiety
    • Arthritis 
    • Depression 
    • Infertility 
    • Cancer
    • Cardiovascular disease
  49. What is a 'food desert'? (MEDC)
    • A lack of access to food, particularly foods needed for healthy diet. 
    • Particularly prominent in poor neighbourhoods
  50. What are the effects of mass production of food on the environment?
    • Waterways can become eutrophied from increased used of pest control and fertilisers
    • Animals need antibiotics in order to reduce diesase, the medicine is then eaten and enters the biological system which damages other animals
    • More food needs to be transported which leads to an increase of carbon emissions
  51. In which type of countries is obesity the lowest?
    Countries where there is the least differential between the richest and poorest sections of society, such as Japan
  52. What are the five different types of healthcare approaches?
    • Emergent
    • Pluralistic
    • Insurance/social security
    • National health service
    • Socialised
  53. What is an emergent health-care approach?
    • Most hospitals in cities
    • High numbers of patients to doctors
    • Rural areas lack clinics
    • National government spending on healthcare is low
  54. What is a Pluralistic health-care approach?
    • Health-care provided by independent doctors
    • Consumer pays for everything from appointments to after-care drugs 
    • People need insurance, although not compulsory
  55. What is an Insurance/social security health-care approach?
    • The one adopted in France, which WHO found to be most effective in world. 
    • Patients can choose doctors
    • Backed by private healthcare schemes
    • Patient pays on the spot but is reimbursed to varying degrees
    • Expensive, increasing
  56. What is a 'National health service' health-care approach?
    • Provides citizens with equal access to health-care regardless of their ability to pay
    • Financed by national government taxation
    • NHS in the UK is a case-study
  57. What is a Socialised health-care approach?
    • Found in Cuba
    • Aims to monitor citizens, free to them
    • Prevention rather than treatment
  58. What is a TNC?
    A company that operates in at least two countries, consisting of a hierarchical structure that expands from very rich CEOs to very poor factory workers.
  59. What is the average life expectancy for a person in the UK?
    81.5 years
  60. What is globalisation?
    Process by which the world is becoming increasingly interconnected between different political, social and economic components of the world, as a result of massively increased trade and cultural exchange.
  61. What are the characteristics of a TNC?
    • A company that works in at least two countries
    • usually have a hierarchical structure with the headquarters in the country of origin
    • work in the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors
    • Most common in technology, large-volume consumer goods and services (e.g. banking, advertising)
    • driving force behind globalisation, only a few areas of the world that are unaffected by TNCs
    • tend to be in a collaborative effort with many other countries
  62. List the positives of TNCs (4)
    • They provide employment at every level
    • Help global health improve and meet Millenium development goals
    • Pay taxes that contribute to the economy
    • Growth of TNCs specialising in generic drugs
  63. What is 'evergreening'?
    When TNCs alter a chemical slightly to get a new patent and more money
  64. List the disadvantages of TNCs (5)
    • Costs £50,000 to develop new drug
    • Animal testing
    • Long developing time (12 years)
    • Branded drugs can be 30x more expensive than generic drugs
    • Workers in tobacco TNCs absorb nicotine through skin - damaging
  65. Define: essential drugs
    Drugs that satisfy the healthcare needs of the majority of the population and should therefore be available at all times in adequate amounts and in appropriate dosage forms, at a price everyone can afford
  66. What are CIPLA?
    • a TNC
    • produced the cheapest antiretroviral drugs for HIV
    • Produces affordable cancer drugs (75% cheaper than alternatives)
    • Operates a hospice that uses CIPLA products
  67. How do tobacco TNCs (such as British American Tobacco) appeal to children in LEDCs? (4)
    • Selling single stick cigarettes (2p each)
    • Advertising through sponsoring music artists and events 
    • Bias leaflets that subtly advertise smoking
    • Colourful posters advertising smoking as 'cool' and 'western'
  68. What fraction of the children globally are smokers?
    One third
  69. What percentage of smokers start smoking before the age of 18?
    90%
  70. Why are the warning labels on cigarette packets ineffective in LEDCs?
    • People may not be able to read them
    • Cigarettes are sold as single sticks, which do not warn about health
  71. What is the global change in cigarette smokers?
    • Number of people in the west smoking is going down
    • Number of people in developing world is going up
  72. Are people with a lower or higher economic status more likely to be smokers?
    Lower
  73. What health benefits do higher income people get? (4)
    • Able to afford leisure facilities
    • Private healthcare
    • Better diet
    • Better quality housing

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