Enlightenment and Revolutions Test
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What American documents are known for being Enlightenment documents?
The Declaration of Independence and the First 10 Amendments in the Bill of Rights
Who are the four key people from the Enlightenment in which most revolutions based their ideal government off of?
Where is the epicenter of the Enlightenment?
What was the Enlightenment?
A paradigm shift in thinking when coming to how a government ought to work.
When did the Enlightenment take place?
What did the Enlightenment do?
It applied human reason and logic to solving societal issues
What was the main societal issue that the Enlightenment tried to solve?
The best type of government to use in a society
What traditional belief was challenged by Enlightenment thinkers? Where did they stand with these beliefs?
- the belief that human society was fixed by tradition or divine command.
- They believed that it ought to be changed and improved by human action guided by reason.
What type of government did westerners apperciate the least?
What were the causes of the Enlightenment?
The Scientific revolution, Reformation, Witch Hunts, Humanism, and account of other cultures.
When did Humanism develop?
during the Renaissance
How did the Scientific Revolution help cause the Enlightenment?
the Enlightenment thinkers want to find the natural laws of government and society like how the people of the Scientific Revolution found the natural laws of science
How did the Reformation contribute to the Enlightenment?
The violence that resulted when a certain religion would claim superiority made the Enlightenment thinkers to want religious tolerance.
How did Witch Hunts contribute to the Enlightenment?
This also jerked the desire for religious tolerance
Who said "No idea is worth burning your neighbor for"? What was he referring to?
Voltaire and he was referring to the witch hunts
What accounts from other countries helped cause the Enlightenment?
- Matteo Ricci's news from China
- Questions about the Amerindians
- and global awareness
How did humanism contribute in causing the Enlightenment?
It helped them understand the importance of individual relationships to things beyond religion.
When did humanism develop?
During the Renaissance
What were some of the traditional roles already established? What impact did the Enlightenment have on these things?
- divine right
- absolute government
- slavery and other forced labour
- The Enlightenment questioned these things and eventually changed some of them
How were traditional roles usually changed?
What revolutions were apart of the Atlantic Revolutions in chronological order?
- American Revolution
- French Revolution
- Haitian Revolution
- South American Countries Revolution
What inspired all of the Atlantic Revolutions?
"Superstar" of the Enlightenment
Who critiqued the role that religion played in public life, insisting on the importance of reason as opposed to revelation?
Who favored religious tolerance and freedom of speech?
What French man (1694-1778) sought political reform?
Who believed that the government should reflect what the people want?
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Who wrote "The Social Contract? What was it about?
- Rousseau; it was about how governments are supposed to
- protect the people's natural rights and that if they don't the should be
Who believed in popular sovereignty? What is it?
- Rousseau; popular sovereignty is when the authority to govern
- comes from the people, the governed, rather then God (divine right) or
Who believed that people should hold the real power of government and that the government should be held by the General Will of the people?
Does Rousseau ever believe that the majority is wrong? If not, why? If so, what need to happen?
Yes, when the majority is wrong then the trained ruler should decide what is best.
Where Jean Jacques Rousseau from?
Who developed new political ideas about the individual, natural rights, and the social contract?
Where was John Locke from?
Who proposed that all men possess certain natural rights? What were these natural rights?
- John Locke
- Life, liberty, and property
According to Locke, what is the social contract?
A reciprocal relationship between the people and their government
Besides Rousseau, who believed that it was the government's role to protect the rights of its people?
Who believes that the social contract should last only as long as it served the people well?
Who believed in popular sovereignty? What is it?
Locke; popular sovereignty is the authority to govern derived from the people rather than from God or from established tradition (direct challenge to tradition)
From which Enlightenment thinker did Thomas Jefferson base his ideology? How did this impact America?
John Locke; Thomas Jefferson was the primary author of the Declaration of Independence, thus many of Locke's ideas were in this document.
Where was Baron de Montesquieu from?
Who wrote "The Spirit of Laws"? What were its main ideas?
Montesquieu; The necessity of checks and powers (separation of powers)
Who believed that powers should be balanced between the various classes and estates? What his reasoning for this?
Montesquieu; he believed that it would prevent tyranny and promote liberty
Who believed that the government should have three parts? What were they?
Montesquieu; executive, legislative, and judicial
What were some of the effects of the Enlightenment?
- Popular sovereignty/ social contract
- Natural Rights; equality (extended voting to more people)
- Religious Tolerance
Popular sovereignty/ social contract replaced what traditional belief?
Capitalism replaced what traditional belief?
Natural rights and equality replaced what traditional belief?
Religious tolerance replaced what traditional belief?
Authority of a single church
What is divine right?
Authority to rule comes from God
What is mercantilism?
More imports than exports; results in a favorable balance of trade because the government heavily regulates trade
What is capitalism?
when the government controls trade very little
Who said "No opinion is worth burning your neighbor over"
What are some ways that the Enlightenment ideas spread?
pamphlets, trade, books, coffee houses, and salons
What is the key difference between the meetings in the coffee houses and the ones in the salons?
coffee houses were for the common people and salons were for the important people
What did all the Atlantic Revolutions have in common?
They all broke from European control, they all were inspired by the Enlightenment, they were all bordering the Atlantic Ocean, and they all revolted against absolutism
Why did the American Revolution succeed?
The people had a high literacy rate since the majority were Protestants (they to read the Bible themselves) and they had experience (they were used to basically being independent seeming England didn't pay them much mind)
What was the most effective nonviolent ways to bring about change?
What were the natural rights that the French were fighting for?
Fertility, equality, and liberty
What were the natural rights that the Americans were fighting for?
Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
What are the five steps to every revolution?
- A period of discontent (unhappiness)
- Effective Leadership Arises
- A "Revolutionary Myth" develops
- The people "React" to the incompetent government
- A change takes place in government
What were some of the things that the Americans were discontent about?
- Their economic wealth in America did not equal their political power in England
- They had to pay taxes even though they could not have a representative in Parliament "no taxation without representation"
- They believed that they were English citizens, yet they weren't being treated as if they were
- The Declaratory Act
- Mercantilist economy
- Losing jobs to English men
- They were used to England being statutory and preferred local control but then England started passing laws against them
- They didn't like how the taxes favoured British traders
How did the English see Americans?
What were some of the acts passed against America? What did they do?
- The Sugar Act - tax on all imported goods
- The Stamp Act - tax on all printed materials
- The Declaratory Act - declared absolutism over American colonies
Why did England suddenly begin to impose more taxes on the Americans?
They needed more money because they spent a lot of it on the French and Indian War
What were some of the effective leadership that arose during the American Revolution?
- The Continental Congress
- George Washington
- Sons of Liberty
- Daughters of Liberty
- Thomas Jefferson
- Thomas Payne
- Benjamin Franklin
- John Adams
- James Madison
- Samuel Adams
Who made up the Continental Congress?
Representatives from each colony
What major role did George Washington play in the revolution?
He was the commander of the Continental Army
What major role did Thomas Jefferson play in the revolution?
He wrote the Declaration of Independence
What major role did Samuel Adams play in the revolution?
He was the head of the Sons of Liberty and headed the Boston Tea party
What major role did the Sons of Liberty play in the revolution?
They fought against taxation
What major role did the Daughters of Liberty play in the revolution?
They fought against mercantilism by making things illegally
What major role did James Madison play in the revolution?
He was the primary author of the Constitution
Who put wrote things that were easy for everyone to understand? He is also the author of "Common Sense" and "The Crisis".
What were some of America's revolutionary myths?
- The Government is supposed to protect the people's natural rights
- There are certain unalienable (natural) rights
- All men are created equal
- Whenever a government becomes destructive of these rights the people should overtake or alter it
- English monarchy must be abolished and replaced with a government based on social contract, popular sovereignty, and natural rights
How did the Americans react to England's incompetent government?
- They protested against the raised taxes and it became known as the Boston Massacre
- The hurled the British cargo overboard because of the tax on tea and it became known as the Boston Tea Party
- They created the Declaration of Independence
- They established the Continental Army
- They boycotted and began to smuggle goods
- They had the Revolutionary War
What does the phrase "it was offensive not expensive" refer to?
It refers to how the taxes favoured only one company/ British traders
What changes occurred in government after the American Revolution?
- The Americans gained their freedom and set up The Articles of Confederation (a weak democracy) to replace the monarchy.
- It was then replaced by the Constitution which created a federal republic
What Enlightenment ideas were successfully embedded into the federal republic government that America set up?
- Popular sovereignty (they elected George Washington to be their president)
- The separation of powers (legislative, judicial, and executive
- Protects natural rights (Bill of Rights)
What allows American government to be altered?
What were the masses of the people discontent about in France?
- Salt taxes
- Forced Labour
- Feudal dues
What were the middle class people discontent about in France?
- Corrupt and costly courts
- They couldn't have high political positions because those were inherited
What effective leadership arose in France?
- The National Assembly
- Jean-Paul Marat
Who became like a martyr to the French people and eventually was made out to be a religious figure?
Who was the main leader of the French Revolution until he was killed my his own people due his radical changes?
Who vowed to write the French Constitution?
The National Assembly
What revolutionary myth developed in France?
- They wanted the nobility (1st and 2nd estate) to pay taxes
- They wanted the Constitution for France to guarantee the rights of the people
- They wanted to set up a limited monarchy
How did the French respond to its incompetent government?
- They made the Tennis Court Oath
- The soldiers refused to fire on its people
- Mobs pillaged gun shops and took arms
- They burned Versailles
- They created the Declaration of the Rights of Man
- The women marched onto Versailles and took the King, Queen, and the rest of the royal family to Paris
- They beheaded Louis XVI and his wife
- The people created a national guard so that they can defend themselves against the King's army
What was the symbol of the French Revolution? What did it claim to do?
The guillotine; it was used to behead anyone that posed a threat against the revolutionary swiftly and painlessly.
What was the guillotine's nickname?
The National Razor
How did the government respond to the revolutionaries?
- King Louis XVI dismissed Necker and others who cared for the masses
- Later he tried to flee France and go to Austria
What was caused by King Louis XVI's attempt to escape?
- He became known as a trader because he was trying to abandon his people which made the people want to abolish the monarchy all together.
- Louis was sentenced to death because he was found guilty of treason
What was the end result of the French Revolution?
- Napoleon became a dictator in France and began conquering European land
- Europe then joined in alliance against France and imposed an absolute monarchy there once againl
Describe France's social hiarchy.
- The First Estate was on the top of the pyramid and was made up of clergymen
- The Second Estate was next and was made up of Aristocrats. These men had high positions in government and had titles
- The Third Estate was the biggest and 20% consisted of the Bourgeoisie (monied men without political power) and the other 80% were just extremely poor people
What compare and contrast the French and American Revolution?
- The French Revolution was extremely violent, whereas America's was not
- America's absolute monarch were miles away where as France's was local
- They both wanted Enlightenment ideas to be implemented its government
- Both of them were caused because of increase in tax due to the incompetent governments debt
- The American Revolution was successful but France's was not
- America wanted to break away from the monarchy completely, whereas France wanted to create a limited monarchy
How much of a French family's income was spent on bread?
What marked the beginning of France's economic collapse?
When King Louis sent people to help the Americans fight
Who was King Louis XVI's wife? What was her nickname?
Marie Antoinette aka Madam Deficit
What was Marie Antoinette know for? What did she symbolize according to the masses?
- She was known for her extravagant parties, ridiculous hairdos, and her love for fashion.
- To the masses she symbolized just how much the government wasted money
Who was Louis XVI's financial advisor?
John Necker (an Enlightenment thinker)
Who helped to write the Constitution of the Rights of Men?
What were the three key points in the Constitution of the Rights of Men?
- sovereignty belongs to the people
- constitutional/ limited monarchy
Who wrote many angry newspaper articles and believed that the only way to a successful revolution was by killing those that opposed it?
Who was known as "The Incorruptible"
Who killed Meret? Why and with what?
- Charlotte Korday
- She was upset about all the violence and believed that Meret was causing all of it so by killing him she believed that she would bring peace
- She killed him with a stiletto (small knife)
Who was known as "The People's Friend"
What was the terror? What was the reason for its name?
- the first emergency government in France
- it got its name because it was supposed to make the people fear rebelling against the Revolution. There were spies everywhere and anyone that seemed like they were even slightly against the Revolution or a revolutionary idea would be put in jail or sentenced to death
What twelve men council ruled France?
The Comity of Public Safety
How did French Revolutionists respond the Catholicism?
- They tore down the churches
- Created a new calendar (one that does not reflect Christianity)
- Sunk priests and other clergymen
Who associates terror with virtue?
Who said "My only regret is that I'm going down before that rat Robespierre"? Why?
- He was sentenced to death by Robespierre for believing that the violence should begin to stop
During the Great Terror, approximately how many men were killed each month?
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