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- Simplest type of learning
- Ex. baby goes to doctor and gets a shot and now associates doctor with pain
- Learning of involuntary responses like feeling scared
- Learning by association
- Conditioning = learning, unconditioned is a natural response
- More detail on notes: 3-23-15
- Had a dog and noticed that the dog was salivating when he was preparing food.
- Rings bell and brings food the dog is salivating. Does this 7 times and after that he just rings the bell without food and the dog is still salivating even though there is no food.
- Has 3 Parts if represented on Graph
- Acquisition Curve
- Extinction Curve
- Spontaneous Recovery
What if Pavlov keeps ringing bell without the food?
Eventually the dog gets less responsive to the bell
"Training" the bell with the dog and the food
Gets weaker over time if there is no food when the bell is rung
After a certain rest period and when you ring the bell again, the response comes back but at half magnitude and then goes down again
Pavlov Experiment Breakdown
- Noticed Bell + Food = Salivate
- Food = unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
- Salivate = unconditioned response (UCR)
- Bell = conditioned stimulus (CS)
- Major theorist on behavioralism
- Did the "Little Albert Study"
"Little Albert Study"
- Watson tried to find a UCS and it happened to be the loud noise. So he combined it with a white rat to create fear.
- White rat (CS) + Loud Noise (UCS) = Fear (UCR)
- So he used a loud noise and showed rat. §
- Then noise stopped and just showed the baby a mouse and baby started crying cuz association with the loud noise not cuz of
- rat (CS) and fear of the CS is now a CR (conditioned response)
Generalization of Fear in the "Little Albert Study"
Anything that resembles the white rat can also become a fear so it could be a rabbit for example.
- Some things we learn much more easily than other things and some things are harder to unlearn once you have learned it.
- It's part of you DNA, some thing you're biologically programmed to be scared of
- Easy to learn and once you learn it you never unlearn it.
- Like food poisoning so when you eat bad Chinese food you don't go back to that restaurant
Proved the taste aversions in the same way with the boy and the rat
Examples of classical conditioning in everyday life
Ads for example try to condition you to their product
Learning of voluntary responses (behaviors) like raising your hand to ask a question
- Used operant conditioning in his study
- Worked with animals.
- Developed the idea of positive reinforcement
Giving something to increase behavior
- Every time a rat presses the bar it gets food.
- Then what he said what if he gets food sometimes they press the bar?
- He investigated a certain schedule of reinforcement:
- Fixed Ratio
- Variable Ratio
- Fixed Interval
- Variable Interval
If x=5 then every 5 bar presses the rat gets food. So the ratio is 5:1
The number of presses varies in order to get food, but the rat has to perform the behavior to get the food
- Doesn't matter how many time the rat presses the bar, it is fixed by time.So like every 5 min and it doesn't matter if the rat pressed the bar 100 times or 0 times the food still comes down
The interval of time jumps around, not fixed.
Giving something pleasant to increase behavior
- Take away something unpleasant to increase behavior.
- Ex. Like if someone keeps nagging you to clean the room and you do it just to make them stop
- Adding something to decrease the behavior.
- Ex. Spanking, kid runs on street and you don't want them to run out on the street anymore so you spank so they won't do it again
- Removing something to decrease the behavior.
- Ex. Getting grounded
- Part of Operant conditioning.
- Reinforcing successive (step by step) approximations (get closer and closer) to the desired behavior until goal is reached.
- This is used when the desired goal is hard to achieve so you have to break them down into steps until you get to the final goal.
Starts with and event and then goes to sensory memory then to short term memory then long-term memory.
How to get from sensory memory to short-term memory
To get from sensory to short term you need to pay attention. If you're not paying attention then you wont retain the information and it wont go into the short term memory
To get from short-term memory to long-term memory
You need to use encoding
- Capacity = high and lasts 1/10 sec
- Has two parts to sensory memory:
Iconic Sensory Memory
Echoic Sensory Memory
- Working memory.
- Capacity = 7 + or - 2 "chunks"
- Lasts 20 sec
- Use strategies to remember instead of using repetition to get the information stored and it could be used like association of things so they can be relatable and easier to remember.
- Part of short term memory
- Can put numbers together to make them into one unit so that you can remember more numbers. So instead of 1 # = 1 unit you can have 3 # = 1 unit
- Capacity = very large
- Lasts = unknown
- Reason why unknown is because you have stuff that in the brain that you don't know you have like childhood memories that you cannot remember unless there is some kind of trigger
- Use this to get stuff from short-term to long-term memory.
- Shallow vs. Deep Processing
- Spacing Effect
Shallow vs. Deep Processing
- Deep - more meaningful since you have to think of it on a different level like using synonyms to memorize words
- Shallow - Is like rhyming when less encoding was provided because it was easier to come up with a rhyme than a synonym.
- That is why the synonyms have a higher recall rate
- Deep 2 - If you know what you're talking about it makes it easier to remember because now you understand
Organization in Encoding
Why you put things together in groups or organize them it make sit easier to remember
Imagery in Encoding
This is good for people who are very visual
Spacing Effect in Encoding
- Distributed vs Mass Practice
- Mass Practice = cramming
- Distributed = spaced out study with a little at a time
- Distribution works better because it's a protein that helps remember caller CREB so cramming = running out which means you can't remember anymore
- Works with long term memory
- Explicit vs Implicit
- Memories that you know that you have (conscious memories)
- Can be divided into 2 groups:
- Semantic Memories
- Episodic Memories
- Part of Explicit storage
- Something that has happened to you. Learn from experience.
- Located in the hippocampus and is destroyed by Karsakoffs
- Part of Explicit storage
- Learning facts in theory and stuff that you learned but didn't actually happen to you
- Located in the frontal cortex
Memories that you can not conscious of and you don't know that you have them
Retrieval of Memory
- Context Effects
- Serial Position Effects
- Constructed Nature of Memory
- Has two parts Physical and Emotional Context.
- Physical - the more queues you give yourself the more chance of you are to remember.
- Ex. Sitting in same seat in class means you have a greater chance to remember everything you learned from that spot
- Ex2. Chewing gum during a test that has the same flavor as the one you used for studying
- Emotional Context - self explanitory
Serial Position Effect
More likely to remember things int he beginning and the end than things that were said in the middle like in a series of words. Has to do with proactive and retroactive.
- Part of serial position effect.
- Things that come before interfere with your memory. So the last word in a sequence you don't have to remember things after.
- Part of serial position effect
- Things that come after interfere with memory.
- The first work in a sequence because you have to remember things after
- Part of serial position effect
- Remembering the beginning
- Part of serial position effect
- Remembering the end
Constructed Nature of Memory
Can never be completely sure because you don't know if you constructed it or if it actually happened.
- Problem Solving and decision making
- A procedure that guarantees a solution, and a lot of people don't' use it because it is not efficient so we always try heuristics first because it might be faster to get to the solution.
- The best way to get to a solution because it guarantees a solution
- A guide that you try to use, decision rule, to solve your problem. Rules are short cuts and we want to be efficient.
- Possibilities to make a lot of errors because they are fast and efficient but not always accurate.
- Comes in 3 types:
- Availability heuristic
- Representative heuristic
- Anchoring heuristic
Using what ever information that is readily available to make you decision
- Make decisions based on object or event that matches the more representative case.
- Ex. If it looks like a duck, quacks like a duck, the it's a duck.
- Based on laziness
- Refers to using some information as a frame of reference or base line or anchor to make a decision.
- Ex. Anchoring is like suggesting something to get an answer like how many drinks did you have like 2 cases? And the response would most likely be no like 1. But if you as like how many drinks did you have over the weekend they would say a few because there is no anchor.
Barriers to Problem Solving
- Things that get in the way of reaching a solution
- Mental Set
- Functional Fixedness
- Prevents you from seeing a solution because you have a mental set/restriction.
- Ex. Nine Dot Problem
- Taking a break might be able to rid your mind of the mental set so you can approach it in another way. If you keep going the set wont go away and you wont be able to solve the problem
- We generally only see on function for an object.
- Ex. A matchbox and it's function is to hold the matches and it's hard to see it in other ways.
Gestalt (insight) Theory of Problem Solving
- Gestalt - German word for whole
- AHA experience
- Creative Thinking
Chimps are in a zoo and a bunch of bananas are hanging from the sealing and they cannot get them. They try jumping and reaching. In the environment you have crates so the chimp eventually stacks the crates together and gets the bananas that it couldn't reach before.
Are Humans Rational?
- Dan Ariely
- Tversky and Kahneman
- Cognitive Illusions.
- We think that we can control our rational thinking but we really can't.
- ted talk for more detail
Tversky and Kahneman
Effects of Framing
Effects of Framing
- The way you frame a question changes the persons response even if the question is exactly the same.
- Risk averse and Risk Seeking - people won't want to take a risk when you have a chance to save (risk averse) but now if you say they will die then they will take a risk and that is called (risk seeking).
- Traditional Notions of intelligence
- Gardner's Multiple Intelligence
- Sternbergs Theory of Intelligence
Tradition Notion of Intelligence
- Logical - deductive thinking (problem solving)
- Language - Comprehend and understand
- Processing Speed
Gardner's Multiple Intelligences
- Handout has 7 areas of intelligence
- Said there can't just be the 3 traditional things
- Part of Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences.
- How well you understand yourself and do you understand why do to the things that you do.
- Part of Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences
- Ability to understand and interact with others.
Sternbergs Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
- Information processing intelligence
- - Mental steps and components used to solve problems
- Creative Intelligence
- - Use of experience in ways that foster insight
- Practical Intelligence (street smarts)
- - Ability to read and adapt to the context of everyday life
- Def: Being aware of what is going on around you and processing it.
- Not conscious when sleeping
- Not always conscious when awak
Altered States of Consciousness
Heightened State of Consciousness
- "Flow State"
- - The ability to precess waht is happening in more than normal band of consciousness
- Sense of clarity, creativity, mind expansion
Disrupted State of Consciousness
- Not precessing properly like the ones ne;pw
- Hypnotic States
- Perceptual and cognitive distortions
- - when perceiving something that is not there
Sleep and Dreamin
Most vertebrae have sleep but only mammals have REM sleep
Stages of Sleep
- Stage 1: ~10min sleep approaches with theta waves.
- Stage 2: ~15min, brain is sensitive to sensory input input decreases. Theta waves spindle
- Stage 3: ~20min
- Stage 4: ~45min delta waves occur, deep sleep, physical function down to 75%
- After stage 4 you go into REM sleep
- Rapid Eye Movement
- Functions: May be a time for developing, checking, and expanding the brain
- Comes in cycles = every cycle it's longer
- Dreaming occurs
- Spinal and motor neurons are inhibited, paralyzing the sleeper
Why do we sleep?
Functions of NON REM sleep
Why do we dream?
- Wish fulfillment
- Manifest Content
- Latent Content
- Part of Dreams
- What you dream
- Part of Dreams
- What is symbolized by the latent content