Psych Test 2

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Dnuorgrednu2
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Psych Test 2
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2015-04-23 03:16:24
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Psych Test 2
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  1. Associative Learning
    • Simplest type of learning 
    • Ex. baby goes to doctor and gets a shot and now associates doctor with pain
  2. Classical Conditioning
    • Learning of involuntary responses like feeling scared 
    • Learning by association
    • Conditioning = learning, unconditioned is a natural response
  3. Pavlov
    • More detail on notes: 3-23-15
    • Had a dog and noticed that the dog was salivating when he was preparing food.
    • Rings bell and brings food the dog is salivating. Does this 7 times and after that he just rings the bell without food and the dog is still salivating even though there is no food.
    • Has 3 Parts if represented on Graph
    • Acquisition Curve
    • Extinction Curve
    • Spontaneous Recovery
  4. What if Pavlov keeps ringing bell without the food?
    Eventually the dog gets less responsive to the bell
  5. Acquisition Curve
    "Training" the bell with the dog and the food
  6. Extinction Curve
    Gets weaker over time if there is no food when the bell is rung
  7. Spontaneous Recovery
    After a certain rest period and when you ring the bell again, the response comes back but at half magnitude and then goes down again
  8. Pavlov Experiment Breakdown
    • Noticed Bell + Food = Salivate
    • Food = unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
    • Salivate = unconditioned response (UCR)
    • Bell = conditioned stimulus (CS)
  9. Watson
    • Major theorist on behavioralism
    • Did the "Little Albert Study"
  10. "Little Albert Study"
    • Watson tried to find a UCS and it happened to be the loud noise. So he combined it with a white rat to create fear.
    • White rat (CS) + Loud Noise (UCS) = Fear (UCR)
    • So he used a loud noise and showed rat. § 
    • Then noise stopped and just showed the baby a mouse and baby started crying cuz association with the loud noise not cuz of
    • rat (CS) and fear of the CS is now a CR (conditioned response)
  11. Generalization of Fear in the "Little Albert Study"
    Anything that resembles the white rat can also become a fear so it could be a rabbit for example.
  12. Biological predispositions
    • Some things we learn much more easily than other things and some things are harder to unlearn once you have learned it.
    • It's part of you DNA, some thing you're biologically programmed to be scared of
  13. Taste Aversions
    • Easy to learn and once you learn it you never unlearn it.
    • Like food poisoning so when you eat bad Chinese food you don't go back to that restaurant
  14. Garcia's Studies
    Proved the taste aversions in the same way with the boy and the rat
  15. Examples of classical conditioning in everyday life
    Ads for example try to condition you to their product
  16. Operant Conditioning
    Learning of voluntary responses (behaviors) like raising your hand to ask a question
  17. Skinner
    • Used operant conditioning in his study
    • Worked with animals.
    • Developed the idea of positive reinforcement
  18. Reinforcement
    Giving something to increase behavior
  19. Skinner's Experiment
    • Every time a rat presses the bar it gets food.
    • Then what he said what if he gets food sometimes they press the bar?
    • He investigated a certain schedule of reinforcement:
    • Fixed Ratio
    • Variable Ratio
    • Fixed Interval
    • Variable Interval
  20. Fixed ratio
    If x=5 then every 5 bar presses the rat gets food. So the ratio is 5:1
  21. Variable Ratio
    The number of presses varies in order to get food, but the rat has to perform the behavior to get the food
  22. Fixed Interval
    • Doesn't matter how many time the rat presses the bar, it is fixed by time.
    • So like every 5 min and it doesn't matter if the rat pressed the bar 100 times or 0 times the food still comes down
  23. Variable Interval
    The interval of time jumps around, not fixed.
  24. Positive Reinforcement
    Giving something pleasant to increase behavior
  25. Negative Reinforcement
    • Take away something unpleasant to increase behavior.
    • Ex. Like if someone keeps nagging you to clean the room and you do it just to make them stop
  26. Positive Punishment
    • Adding something to decrease the behavior.
    • Ex. Spanking, kid runs on street and you don't want them to run out on the street anymore so you spank so they won't do it again
  27. Negative Punishment
    • Removing something to decrease the behavior.
    • Ex. Getting grounded
  28. Shaping
    • Part of Operant conditioning.
    • Reinforcing successive (step by step) approximations (get closer and closer) to the desired behavior until goal is reached.
    • This is used when the desired goal is hard to achieve so you have to break them down into steps until you get to the final goal.
  29. Memory
    Starts with and event and then goes to sensory memory then to short term memory then long-term memory.
  30. How to get from sensory memory to short-term memory
    To get from sensory to short term you need to pay attention. If you're not paying attention then you wont retain the information and it wont go into the short term memory
  31. To get from short-term memory to long-term memory
    You need to use encoding
  32. Sensory memory
    • Capacity = high and lasts 1/10 sec
    • Has two parts to sensory memory:
    • Iconic
    • Echoic
  33. Iconic Sensory Memory
    Visual memory
  34. Echoic Sensory Memory
    Listening memory
  35. Short-term Memory
    • Working memory.
    • Capacity = 7 + or - 2 "chunks"
    • Lasts 20 sec
    • Strategies:
    • Repetition
    • Use strategies to remember instead of using repetition to get the information stored and it could be used like association of things so they can be relatable and easier to remember.
  36. Chunking Strategy
    • Part of short term memory
    • Can put numbers together to make them into one unit so that you can remember more numbers. So instead of 1 # = 1 unit you can have 3 # = 1 unit
  37. Long-term Memory
    • Capacity = very large
    • Lasts = unknown
    • Reason why unknown is because you have stuff that in the brain that you don't know you have like childhood memories that you cannot remember unless there is some kind of trigger
  38. Encoding
    • Use this to get stuff from short-term to long-term memory.
    • Shallow vs. Deep Processing
    • Organization
    • Imagery
    • Spacing Effect
  39. Shallow vs. Deep Processing
    • Deep - more meaningful since you have to think of it on a different level like using synonyms to memorize words
    • Shallow - Is like rhyming when less encoding was provided because it was easier to come up with a rhyme than a synonym.
    • That is why the synonyms have a higher recall rate
    • Deep 2 - If you know what you're talking about it makes it easier to remember because now you understand
  40. Organization in Encoding
    Why you put things together in groups or organize them it make sit easier to remember
  41. Imagery in Encoding
    This is good for people who are very visual
  42. Spacing Effect in Encoding
    • Distributed vs Mass Practice
    • Mass Practice = cramming
    • Distributed = spaced out study with a little at a time
    • Distribution works better because it's a protein that helps remember caller CREB so cramming = running out which means you can't remember anymore
  43. Memory Storage
    • Works with long term memory
    • Explicit vs Implicit
  44. Explicit Storage
    • Memories that you know that you have (conscious memories)
    • Can be divided into 2 groups:
    • Semantic Memories
    • Episodic Memories
  45. Episodic Memories
    • Part of Explicit storage
    • Something that has happened to you. Learn from experience.
    • Located in the hippocampus and is destroyed by Karsakoffs
  46. Semantic memories
    • Part of Explicit storage
    • Learning facts in theory and stuff that you learned but didn't actually happen to you
    • Located in the frontal cortex
  47. Implicit Storage
    Memories that you can not conscious of and you don't know that you have them
  48. Retrieval of Memory
    • Context Effects
    • Serial Position Effects
    • Constructed Nature of Memory
  49. Context Effects
    • Has two parts Physical and Emotional Context.
    • Physical - the more queues you give yourself the more chance of you are to remember.
    • Ex. Sitting in same seat in class means you have a greater chance to remember everything you learned from that spot
    • Ex2. Chewing gum during a test that has the same flavor as the one you used for studying
    • Emotional Context - self explanitory
  50. Serial Position Effect
    More likely to remember things int he beginning and the end than things that were said in the middle like in a series of words. Has to do with proactive and retroactive.
  51. Proactive Interference
    • Part of serial position effect.
    • Things that come before interfere with your memory. So the last word in a sequence you don't have to remember things after.
  52. Retroactive Interference
    • Part of serial position effect
    • Things that come after interfere with memory.
    • The first work in a sequence because you have to remember things after
  53. Primacy Effect
    • Part of serial position effect
    • Remembering the beginning
  54. Recency Effect
    • Part of serial position effect
    • Remembering the end
  55. Constructed Nature of Memory
    Can never be completely sure because you don't know if you constructed it or if it actually happened.
  56. Cognition
    • Problem Solving and decision making
    • Algorithm
    • Heuristic
  57. Algorithm
    • A procedure that guarantees a solution, and a lot of people don't' use it because it is not efficient so we always try heuristics first because it might be faster to get to the solution.
    • The best way to get to a solution because it guarantees a solution
  58. Heuristic
    • A guide that you try to use, decision rule, to solve your problem. Rules are short cuts and we want to be efficient.
    • Possibilities to make a lot of errors because they are fast and efficient but not always accurate.
    • Comes in 3 types:
    • Availability heuristic
    • Representative heuristic
    • Anchoring heuristic
  59. Availability Heuristic
    Using what ever information that is readily available to make you decision
  60. Representative Heuristic
    • Make decisions based on object or event that matches the more representative case.
    • Ex. If it looks like a duck, quacks like a duck, the it's a duck.
    • Based on laziness
  61. Anchoring Heuristc
    • Refers to using some information as a frame of reference or base line or anchor to make a decision.
    • Ex. Anchoring is like suggesting something to get an answer like how many drinks did you have like 2 cases? And the response would most likely be no like 1. But if you as like how many drinks did you have over the weekend they would say a few because there is no anchor.
  62. Barriers to Problem Solving
    • Things that get in the way of reaching a solution
    • Mental Set
    • Functional Fixedness
  63. Mental Set
    • Prevents you from seeing a solution because you have a mental set/restriction.
    • Ex. Nine Dot Problem
    • Taking a break might be able to rid your mind of the mental set so you can approach it in another way. If you keep going the set wont go away and you wont be able to solve the problem
  64. Functional Fixedness
    • We generally only see on function for an object.
    • Ex. A matchbox and it's function is to hold the matches and it's hard to see it in other ways.
  65. Gestalt (insight) Theory of Problem Solving
    • Gestalt - German word for whole
    • AHA experience
    • Creative Thinking
  66. Kohler's Chimps
    Chimps are in a zoo and a bunch of bananas are hanging from the sealing and they cannot get them. They try jumping and reaching. In the environment you have crates so the chimp eventually stacks the crates together and gets the bananas that it couldn't reach before.
  67. Are Humans Rational?
    • Dan Ariely
    • Tversky and Kahneman
  68. Dan Ariely
    • Cognitive Illusions.
    • We think that we can control our rational thinking but we really can't. 
    • ted talk for more detail
  69. Tversky and Kahneman
    Effects of Framing
  70. Effects of Framing
    • The way you frame a question changes the persons response even if the question is exactly the same. 
    • Risk averse and Risk Seeking - people won't want to take a risk when you have a chance to save (risk averse) but now if you say they will die then they will take a risk and that is called (risk seeking).
  71. Intelligence
    • Traditional Notions of intelligence
    • Gardner's Multiple Intelligence 
    • Sternbergs Theory of Intelligence
  72. Tradition Notion of Intelligence
    • Logical - deductive thinking (problem solving)
    • Language - Comprehend and understand
    • Processing Speed
  73. Gardner's Multiple Intelligences
    • Handout has 7 areas of intelligence
    • Said there can't just be the 3 traditional things
  74. Intrapersonal Intelligence
    • Part of Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences.
    • How well you understand yourself and do you understand why do to the things that you do.
  75. Interpersonal Intelligence
    • Part of Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences
    • Ability to understand and interact with others.
  76. Sternbergs Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
    • Information processing intelligence
    •    - Mental steps and components used to solve problems
    • Creative Intelligence
    •    - Use of experience in ways that foster insight
    • Practical Intelligence (street smarts)
    •    - Ability to read and adapt to the context of everyday life
  77. Consciousness
    • Def: Being aware of what is going on around you and processing it.
    • Not conscious when sleeping
    • Not always conscious when awak
  78. Altered States of Consciousness
    • Heightened
    • Disrupted
    • Diminished
  79. Heightened State of Consciousness
    • "Flow State"
    • - The ability to precess waht is happening in more than normal band of consciousness
    • Sense of clarity, creativity, mind expansion
  80. Disrupted State of Consciousness
    • Not precessing properly like the ones ne;pw
    • Daydreaming
    • Hypnotic States
    • Perceptual and cognitive distortions
    • - when perceiving something that is not there
  81. Sleep and Dreamin
    Most vertebrae have sleep but only mammals have REM sleep
  82. Stages of Sleep
    • Stage 1: ~10min sleep approaches with theta waves.
    • Stage 2: ~15min, brain is sensitive to sensory input input decreases. Theta waves spindle
    • Stage 3: ~20min
    • Stage 4: ~45min delta waves occur, deep sleep, physical function down to 75%
    • After stage 4 you go into REM sleep
  83. REM sleep
    • Rapid Eye Movement
    • Functions: May be a time for developing, checking, and expanding the brain
    • Comes in cycles = every cycle it's longer
    • Dreaming occurs
    • Spinal and motor neurons are inhibited, paralyzing the sleeper
  84. Why do we sleep?
    Biological Necessity
  85. Functions of NON REM sleep
    • Restoration
    • Growth
  86. Why do we dream?
    • Wish fulfillment
    • Manifest Content
    • Latent Content
  87. Manifest Content
    • Part of Dreams
    • What you dream
  88. Latent Content
    • Part of Dreams
    • What is symbolized by the latent content

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