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A male trapper and explorer who lives in the wilderness (New Mexico)
to append or add as an extra or subordinate part, especially to a document
a member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints
a large covered wagon used for long-distance travel, typically carrying pioneers in the westward expansion
the 19th century doctrine or belief that the expansion of the US throughout the American continents was justified and inevitable
a candidate or competitor about whom little is know but who unexpectedly wins or suceeds
prospector in the California gold rush of 1849
a meeting at an agreed time and place
the practice or custom of having more than one spouse
a member of a self-appointed group of citizens who undertake law enforcement in their community without legal authority
Who created the idea of manifest destiny
John L. O. Sullivan
Who established the city of Santa Fe?
Why were there few settlers in New Mexico?
distance from Mexico, no shipments
What kind of business made people want to settle in New Mexico and why?
Fur business, high demand in Europe, abundant supply in the rocky Mtns.
Who started the Santa Fe trail?
What path was taken to get to New Mexico?
The Santa Fe Trail
How did the US get New Mexico
Through the Mexican Cession in the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Who began rendezvous?
When and why did the fur business stop?
- change of fashion
- animal population decreasing
Who started the chain of missions on California coast in the 1700s?
Father Junipero Serra
Why did people start to move to Cali?
- cheap land
- whaling business
- trade with asia
Who started the Bear Flag revolt?
John Charles Fremont
What was the Bear Flag revolt?
California chasing out mexican officials and declaring themselves bear flag republic
How did California become part of the US?
Annexed during Mexican Cession
What were the two Fur companies
- Hudson Bay company
- American Fur company
Who owned the American Fur company
John Jacob Astor
Name two missionaries and who started them.
- Whitman Mission: Marcus and Nacissa Whitman
- Willamette River Valley: Jason Lee
Why did people start to move to Oregon?
Oregon fever: Letters from Jason Lee made it sound wonderful
What was the Oregon trail
South Pass starting in Independence Missouri that led through the mountains
How long did the Oregon trail take?
6-7 months, 20miles/day, 2mph
How did people traveling with Conestoga wagons live on the trail?
- no room for riding, walked
- slept under wagons
- camped in circles to make a fence for oxen
How did Indians take advantage of the travelers
- demanded toll
- wanted trade
Who brought settlers into Texas
Stephen F. Austin (and his dad Moses Austin)
Who settled in TX
southern farmers (slave owners)
When did TX declare independence?
March 2nd, 1836
What were the two most important battles of the TX revolution
- The battle of the Alamo
- The Battle of San Jacinto
Who led the TX army during its revolution
Who was the leader of Mexico
Why was TX annexation denied
- slavery issue
- mexican claims
- whig resistance
Who won the election of 1844
James K. Polk
Who started the annexation of Texas?
President Tyler in a joint session
what were the agreements made to annex texas
TX kept slaves, debt, and public land
What was the chant that forced England to back down from Oregon?
"54 40 or fight!"
Why war with Mexico?
- texas annexation
- claims of $15 mill in debt
- US wanted California+New Mexico
Who attempted to negotiate with Mexico but failed
Where did the Oregon territory divide?
Who did Polk order to occupy up to Rio Grande?
How was Mexico at an advantage?
- Us outnumbered
- Lack of support for US
Name the 3 commanders and what they captured
- Zachary Taylor: Buena Vista (largest victory), Northern Mexico
- Stephen Watts Kearny: New Mexico and California
- Winfield Scott: Vera Cruz, Mexico City
What treaty ended the Mexican War
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Who made the Gadsden Purchase
James Gadsden- $10Million to build railroad
Who discoved Gold in California? When? On whose land?
- James Marshall
- John Sutter's land
What were the three methods of travel to California during the Gold rush?
- Down to Panama, donkey train across isthmus, boat to california through pacific (Fastest, most expensive)
- Sailed around South America (easiest)
- Covered wagon on California Trail (most common)
What was life like for 49ers
What was the name of the mormon church
The church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
Who was the founder of the Mormons
Joseph Smith in New York
Why were Mormons unpopular
- communal: only did business with eachother
- Political: using membership to get elected
- Religious: allowed polygamy
Who was smith's sucessor
Why did the mormons migrate and how
- For religious freedom and to stop riots
- Mormon Trail, to northern Mexico around Salt Lake City
What did the Mormons call their settlement and what is know as today?
Zion in the state of Deseret now know as Utah
What troubles did Mormons face?
- too dry for farming
- Crops destroyed by locusts
- Gold rush ends isolation
Diplomat who negotiated end of the Mexican War
Site of Mexican Massacre of texas troops
Navel Commander who declared California american property
Battle of Mexican cadets to protect their capital
President who refused texas annexation
First Battle of Mexican war
Sign written on housing indicating texas immigration