Westward Expansion

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  1. mountain man
    A male trapper and explorer who lives in the wilderness (New Mexico)
  2. annex
    to append or add as an extra or subordinate part, especially to a document
  3. Mormon
    a member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints
  4. Conestoga wagon
    a large covered wagon used for long-distance travel, typically carrying pioneers in the westward expansion
  5. manifest destiny
    the 19th century doctrine or belief that the expansion of the US throughout the American continents was justified and inevitable
  6. dark horse
    a candidate or competitor about whom little is know but who unexpectedly wins or suceeds
  7. forty-niner
    prospector in the California gold rush of 1849
  8. rendezvous
    a meeting at an agreed time and place
  9. polygamy
    the practice or custom of having more than one spouse
  10. vigilante
    a member of a self-appointed group of citizens who undertake law enforcement in their community without legal authority
  11. Who created the idea of manifest destiny
    John L. O. Sullivan
  12. Who established the city of Santa Fe?
    Juan Onate
  13. Why were there few settlers in New Mexico?
    distance from Mexico, no shipments
  14. What kind of business made people want to settle in New Mexico and why?
    Fur business, high demand in Europe, abundant supply in the rocky Mtns.
  15. Who started the Santa Fe trail?
    William Becknell
  16. What path was taken to get to New Mexico?
    The Santa Fe Trail
  17. How did the US get New Mexico
    Through the Mexican Cession in the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
  18. Who began rendezvous?
    William Ashley
  19. When and why did the fur business stop?
    • 1840s,
    • change of fashion
    • animal population decreasing
  20. Who started the chain of missions on California coast in the 1700s?
    Father Junipero Serra
  21. Why did people start to move to Cali?
    • cheap land
    • whaling business
    • trade with asia
  22. Who started the Bear Flag revolt?
    John Charles Fremont
  23. What was the Bear Flag revolt?
    California chasing out mexican officials and declaring themselves bear flag republic
  24. How did California become part of the US?
    Annexed during Mexican Cession
  25. What were the two Fur companies
    • Hudson Bay company
    • American Fur company
  26. Who owned the American Fur company
    John Jacob Astor
  27. Name two missionaries and who started them.
    • Whitman Mission: Marcus and Nacissa Whitman
    • Willamette River Valley: Jason Lee
  28. Why did people start to move to Oregon?
    Oregon fever: Letters from Jason Lee made it sound wonderful
  29. What was the Oregon trail
    South Pass starting in Independence Missouri that led through the mountains
  30. How long did the Oregon trail take?
    6-7 months, 20miles/day, 2mph
  31. How did people traveling with Conestoga wagons live on the trail?
    • no room for riding, walked
    • slept under wagons
    • camped in circles to make a fence for oxen
  32. Troubles on the trail?
    • weather
    • disease
    • boredom
  33. How did Indians take advantage of the travelers
    • demanded toll
    • wanted trade
  34. Who brought settlers into Texas
    Stephen F. Austin (and his dad Moses Austin)
  35. Who settled in TX
    southern farmers (slave owners)
  36. When did TX declare independence?
    March 2nd, 1836
  37. What were the two most important battles of the TX revolution
    • The battle of the Alamo
    • The Battle of San Jacinto
  38. Who led the TX army during its revolution
    Sam Houston
  39. Who was the leader of Mexico
    Santa Anna
  40. Why was TX annexation denied
    • slavery issue
    • mexican claims
    • whig resistance
  41. Who won the election of 1844
    James K. Polk
  42. Who started the annexation of Texas?
    President Tyler in a joint session
  43. what were the agreements made to annex texas
    TX kept slaves, debt, and public land
  44. What was the chant that forced England to back down from Oregon?
    "54 40 or fight!"
  45. Why war with Mexico?
    • texas annexation
    • border
    • claims of $15 mill in debt
    • US wanted California+New Mexico
  46. Who attempted to negotiate with Mexico but failed
  47. Where did the Oregon territory divide?
    49 parallel
  48. Who did Polk order to occupy up to Rio Grande?
    Zachary Taylor
  49. How was Mexico at an advantage?
    • Us outnumbered
    • Lack of support for US
  50. Name the 3 commanders and what they captured
    • Zachary Taylor: Buena Vista (largest victory), Northern Mexico
    • Stephen Watts Kearny: New Mexico and California
    • Winfield Scott: Vera Cruz, Mexico City
  51. What treaty ended the Mexican War
    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
  52. Who made the Gadsden Purchase
    James Gadsden- $10Million to build railroad
  53. Who discoved Gold in California? When? On whose land?
    • James Marshall
    • 1845
    • John Sutter's land
  54. What were the three methods of travel to California during the Gold rush?
    • Down to Panama, donkey train across isthmus, boat to california through pacific (Fastest, most expensive)
    • Sailed around South America (easiest)
    • Covered wagon on California Trail (most common)
  55. What was life like for 49ers
    • crowded
    • expensive
    • lawless
  56. What was the name of the mormon church
    The church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
  57. Who was the founder of the Mormons
    Joseph Smith in New York
  58. Why were Mormons unpopular
    • communal: only did business with eachother
    • Political: using membership to get elected
    • Religious: allowed polygamy
  59. Who was smith's sucessor
    Bringham Young
  60. Why did the mormons migrate and how
    • For religious freedom and to stop riots
    • Mormon Trail, to northern Mexico around Salt Lake City
  61. What did the Mormons call their settlement and what is know as today?
    Zion in the state of Deseret now know as Utah
  62. What troubles did Mormons face?
    • too dry for farming
    • Crops destroyed by locusts
    • Gold rush ends isolation
  63. Diplomat who negotiated end of the Mexican War
  64. Site of Mexican Massacre of texas troops
  65. Navel Commander who declared California american property
  66. Battle of Mexican cadets to protect their capital
  67. President who refused texas annexation
  68. First Battle of Mexican war
    Palo Alto
  69. Sign written on housing indicating texas immigration
Card Set:
Westward Expansion
2015-04-09 02:21:24
history 8th grade
Montgomery Westward expansion test notecards
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