English key terms AS & A2

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English key terms AS & A2
2015-04-09 10:16:57
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    • author "me"
    • tags "English key words bramble1997"
    • description ""
    • fileName "English Key Words (finished)"
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    • Common Noun
    • A naming word for a thing that is tangible, e.g. chair, penguin, man, murderer, ghost, trumpet etc
  1. Abstract Noun
    A naming word for an idea, concept, state of being or belief, e.g. tidiness, sadness, love, politics, Marxism
  2. Proper Noun
    A naming word for a specific example of a common noun (often are names of places or specific people), e.g. Michael Buble, Elton john, Paris, Eiffel Tower
  3. Verb
    A word that represents an action or process. In simple words, a 'doing word'.
  4. Dynamic Verb
    A word that represents a physical action, e.g. jump, run, slap, kill, kiss, sleep etc.
  5. Stative verb
    A word that represents a process that is often only mental, e.g. think, believe, fear etc.
  6. Auxiliary verb
    A verb that has to be used with another verb in order to create present participles or the future tense, e.g. Did you go?, I am going, You will go etc.
  7. Modal Verb
    An auxiliary verb that express a degree of either possibility or necessity, e.g. might, could, must, should, may etc
  8. Adjective
    A describing word that modifies a noun
  9. Adverb
    A describing word that modifies all types of word, excluding nouns.
  10. Superlative
    An adjective that displays the most extreme value of its quality, e.g. most, biggest, smallest, worst, furthest. Most of the time, superlatives end with -est.
  11. Comparative Adjective
    An adjective that relates one thing in some way to another and usually ends in -er. E.g. bigger, smaller, further, smarter.
  12. Definite article
  13. Indefinite article
    A or an.
  14. Pronoun
    A word that takes the place of a noun in a sentence, e.g. him, her, he, she, I, you, me etc
  15. First Person pronoun
    I and the first person plural, we, our and us
  16. Second person pronoun
  17. Third Person Pronoun
    Him, her, he, she, it and the third person plural, them and those
  18. Possessive Pronoun
    My, mine, our, your, his, hers, theirs
  19. Demonstrative pronoun
    This, that and those
  20. Monosyllabic lexis
    Words of one syllable
  21. Polysyllabic lexis
    Words of two or more syllable
  22. Imperative Sentence mood
    When a sentence is issuing a command
  23. Declarative Sentence Mood
    When a sentence is making a statement
  24. Interrogative Sentence Mood
    When a sentence is asking a question
  25. Exclamatory Sentence Mood
    When a sentence conveys a strong sense of emotion, sense of alarm or overly strong emphasis.
  26. Register
    The level of formality of a text
  27. Tenor
    The tone, or the relationship between author and reader and how it is created.
  28. Attitudes
    The opinions which are expressed in the text.
  29. Content
    What the text is about
  30. Context
    Things outside the text which may shape its meaning, e.g. when it was written and who wrote it.
  31. Form
    The structure and shape of a text.
  32. Themes
    The recurring ideas and images in a text.
  33. Colloquialism
    Informal language usage, e.g. bloke, fella, lass, bog, arse, grub
  34. Exclamation
    A one word sentence (always a minor sentence) with an exclamation mark at the end.
  35. Ellipsis
    When parts of a written structure are missing. In texts they are sometimes indicated by three full stops in a row (...), denotating a significant pause.
  36. Syntax
    The way words form sentences (the ordering of them to create meaning)
  37. Parenthesis
    An aside within a text created by sectioning off extra information between brackets, dashes or between two commas.
  38. Rhetorical Question
    A question designed not to be answered, perhaps to pique interest or make a point; a stylistic choice.
  39. Hypophora
    When a rhetorical question is immediately followed by an answer in a text, e.g. Is this the best film ever? You bet it is!
  40. Hyperbole
    Deliberate over exaggeration of things for effect
  41. Litotes
    Deliberate downplaying of things for effect.
  42. Parallelism/patterning
    The creation of patterns in a text, through repetition of words or phrases (phonological parallelism) or by balancing meanings (semantic parallelism) for deliberate effect.
  43. Repetition
    The repetition of words or phrases
  44. Tricolon/tripling
    Grouping in threes, either through repetition or through structures (either within a sentence or paragraph). This can be for emphasis or to add a sense of gathering momentum to a point being made.
  45. Imagery
    A descriptive or metaphorical use of language to create a vivid picture.
  46. Pre-modification
    A descriptive technique where the descriptive words come before the thing they are describing, e.g. the big, fat wad of cash spewed from his inadequate pocket.
  47. Post-modification
    A descriptive technique where the descriptive words come after the thing they are describing, e.g. the wad of cash, big and fat, spewed from his pocket.
  48. Metaphor
    A comparison that states that something is actually something else. E.g. Im a demon driver
  49. Simile
    A comparison that states something is like or as something else. E.g. I drive like a demon.
  50. Synecdoche
    A metaphor that states something is only a small constituent part of itself, even though we commonly understand otherwise, e.g. A new set of wheels (car)
  51. Analogy
    Explaining something in terms of something else
  52. Allusion
    To refer to something indirectly ot metaphorically.
  53. Pathetic Fallacy
    When the environment or weather mirrors emotions.
  54. Personification
    A device in which the non-human is given personal and human qualities, e.g. the trees danced in the wind.
  55. Extended Metaphor
    When a metaphor continues throughout a text with recurring references to the compared item.
  56. Homeric/epic simile
    When a simile continues throughout a text with recurring references to the compared item.
  57. Symbolism
    Using figurative and metaphoric language, items or incident in a way that means that certain things represent other tungs, e.g. a colour could represent the sadness of a character or a volcano erupting could symbolise the politival infighting of the townspeople beneath the volcano.
  58. Lexis
    Words used.
  59. Field specific lexis
    The language of a certain area, e.g. field specific lexis for computing would include; mouse, monitor, RAM, gigabyte etc
  60. Lexical Set
    The selection of relative lexemes from a text. One can take a lexical set of field specific lexis, modifiers, proper nouns...or whatever would support a statement an English student would like to make about a text.
  61. Lexical Bundle
    A recurrent sequence of words or a collection of words that, through repetition of use, just naturally go together. E.g. I dont think..., Would you mind..., I dont want to.
  62. Semantics
    The meaning of words
  63. Acronym
    Words created by the initals of other grouped words, e.g. the RSPCA, NATO etc
  64. Synonym
    An alternative word choice that has the same or a very similar meaning, e.g. a synonym of horror is fright.
  65. Homophone
    Different words that sound exactly the same when said out load but mean different and are spelt differently. E.g. their, they're and there
  66. Homonym
    When one word has multiple meanings, e.g. great can mean both size and positivity
  67. Archaism
    A word that, over time, has fallen out of common usage. Older ones include zounds, thus, betwixt etc. However, slang can become archaic as new generations opt to choose new terms for things. E.g. dig it, radical etc
  68. Juxtaposition
    The placing of elements for some conscious effect, whether that be complimentary or contrasting.
  69. Antithesis
    When ideas contract or oppose one another; a semantic contrast in a text. Often used in reasoned arguments or to create emphasised contrast.
  70. Binary opposites
    Elements of a text that hold opposite ends of a notional scale. E.g. hot/cold and big/small
  71. Oxymoron
    The use of apparently contradictory words in a phrase, E.g. hot ice
  72. Collocations
    Words that, through usage just naturally go together. We collectively understand they are inextricably linked. E.g. fish and chips, salt and vinegar
  73. Asyndetic Listing
    The listing of elements that excludes any form of coordinating conjunction. The prefix 'a' basically means 'absence of'
  74. Syndetic listing
    The listing of elements that features a coordinating conjunction
  75. Phonological features
    Any devices used that relate to sound, e.g. alliteration and repetition
  76. Onomatopoeia
    When a word is spelled exactly as the same as the sound it describes......quack, drip, miaow
  77. Consonance
    The repetition of double consonants in the middle of words, E.g. I'd better buy more butter before I go out and post these letters.
  78. Assonance
    The repetition of vowel sounds, e.g. you should wear a hood while you chop the wood good. Assonance can create rhyme.
  79. Alliteration
    The repetition of consonant sounds in a text, often at the beginning of words. You must always correctly label the exact type of alliteration.
  80. Plot
    The structured cause and effect of incidents experienced by a protagonist that makes a story interesting; the exposition, the complication and the resolution.
  81. Exposition
    The parts of a story (usually early one) where the writer gets across all the information about the situation of a character, who they are, where they are etc. It should always be as subtle as possible, which usually means avoiding expressing exposition through dialogue.
  82. Narrator
    The voice that tells a fictional story. Can be a first, second or third person narrator
  83. Protagonist
    The character the reader is meant to identify with the most and follow through the story. The hero or anti-hero.
  84. Antagonist
    The character who opposes the goals of the protagonist.
  85. Dialogue
    The presentation of a characters speech.
  86. Monologue
    A type of poem or a prolonged piece of drama where one character delivers a speech that reveals their innermost feelings. Dramatic monologue can infer an addressee or audience who the soeaking character is relating to.
  87. Dramatic irony
    When the audience is aware of more than one of the characters in either a play or a piece of fiction to create a dramatic effect.
  88. Ambiguity
    When there can be more than one possible meaning or outcomes in a story, creating a sense of intrigue.
  89. Anthropomorphism
    When an animal takes on the characteristics of a human being, e.g. by wearing clothes or talking etc
  90. Suspension of disbelief
    The readers ability to take for granted fantastical aspects of fiction in order to enjoy the story.
  91. Genre
    Category of fiction of type of text, e.g. romance, horror, thriller, magazines etc
  92. Audience
    Who the text is aimed at
  93. Purpose
    The reason the text has been produced, e.g. to entertain, to inform etc
  94. Foreshadowing
    The hinting at things to come through early elements of a story
  95. Mimesis
    Mimicry. A story, for example, may mimic the gasping breath of a pursued protagonist by using short, sharp sentences.
  96. Pastiche
    A piece of art or writing that imitates a form or genre to generate humour.
  97. Satire
    A piece of writing or art that pokes fun at the societal establishment
  98. Neologism
    A newly invented word
  99. Portmanteau
    A newly invented word, created by merging two words together
  100. Compound words
    A word created by utilising two existing words seperated by a hypen e.g.global-village, bone-headed etc
  101. Clipping
    Colloquial omission of parts of words to create a more casual alternative, E.g. bra, pram etc
  102. Rhetoric
    An example of persuasive language, arguably including advertising.
  103. Stereotype
    A label for a social group, utilising certain characteristics of group members and applying it to everyone within the grouping.
  104. Taboo Language
    Words that are considered socially unacceptable to say in polite, civilised society. E.g. swear words or words that are politically incorrect.
  105. Connotation
    The associations that can be gleaned from words
  106. Denotation
    The literal meaning of the words
  107. Irony
    Language that conveys a meaning other to than that literally expressed by the words, usually for humourous effect.
  108. Sarcasm
    The use of language in an ironic way with the express purpose of offending or wounding the recipient in some way.
  109. Euphemism
    The polite way to say something not normally considered socially appropriate, usually referring to death or to go to the toilet
  110. Dysphemism
    An unnecessarily extreme way or saying something, not normally socially appropriate. It could incorporate taboo language or contain too much information than necessary. E.g. Your husband had his head blown off and there was blood everywhere.
  111. Headline
    The large text/title of a newspaper article. Often these can incorporate word play and alliteration.
  112. Tagline
    Beneath the headline, there may be a slightly smaller sentence, designed to clarify the gist of the story.
  113. Subheading
    Usually a one or two word, emboldened phrase that breaks up the main article, often foreshadowing what is to come later in the story.
  114. Caption
    Part of a multi-modal text, these will be juxtaposed with an image. Often they are used to say something witty or humourous, maybe punning or taking out of context the image in question.
  115. Grab quote
    An enlarged example taken fron the text, usually a sensationalised piece. It attempts to draw the readers eye, engender curiosity and thus make the reader read the story.
  116. Slogan
    A catchy line, often a minor sentence than sums up an advert, sticks in the mind and makes the product seem more appealing.
  117. Pun
    A play on words
  118. Journalese
    The sensationalised language that is particular to tabloid newspapers. E.g. slam, probe, spat, shocker etc
  119. Multiple modifiers
    Doubling and trebling up of adjectives is used frequently in tabloid newspapers and also other genres of text.
  120. Chiche
    When language is used over and over until it becomes so well known that it loses its original potency. E.g. Im over the moon
  121. Idiom
    A saying, often a cliche where the words that make up the saying do not have the same meaning as the overall semantic effect. E.g. Im over the moon
  122. Malapropism
    When a speaker accidently uses the wrong wrd that sounds the same, or like it should belong in their sentence. E.g. The worlds by lobster
  123. Text Speak
    The phonetic spelling of a text too long to type out in full on a mobile phone.
  124. Orthography
    The method of spelling/correct spelling - we would refer to the non standard orthography of words from the past in comparison to how we write them today.
  125. Etymology
    The origin of a word or the history of how it came to be.
  126. Ampersand
    The symbol &, arguably more prominent in the past.
  127. Non Standard capitalisation
    You may see in very old texts, capital letters being allocated mid sentence to words other than proper nouns, perhaps for emphasis or perhaps arbitrarily.
  128. Archaism/archaic language
    A word that has fallen out of common usage or is old fashioned. These can also include slang words that have fallen out of the youth lexicon.
  129. Anachronistic language
    Language that seems out of time. For example, something may be written in a very old fashioned way for stylistic features, say a fantasy style novel, yet it may contain dialogue that would appeal to a modern young audience, using slang etc. Its like when you spot an extra wearing a digital watch in a historic movie.
  130. Semantic Shift
    The shift in a words meaning over time. E.g. sick evolves to something other than illness but a slang reference to something positive.
  131. Inverted syntax
    When the ordering of words is rearranged to create an alternative weighting to a sentence. For example - Good with the force, he is.
  132. Slang
    Colloquial language, often coined by the younger generations to imprint their own social identity on the language and differentiate themselves from the perceieved establishment.
  133. Globalised Vocabulary
    In the 20th century, in the advent of mass media, social and mobilisation and international travel, there have been an influx of new words and phrases that we now take for granted. E.g. sushi, karaoke, zombie etc
  134. Discourse
    The study of spoken language
  135. Mode
    The mode of the text is how it is presented. Is it in the written or spoken mode? Whichever mide it is, it will be governed by differeing rules and structures
  136. Vocabulary
    The amount of words available to an individual
  137. Paralinguistic features
    Literally beyond language. The things that aid communication but dont constitute language. E.g. body language, facial expressions, laughter, sighs etc
  138. Prosodic features
    The sound effects of spoken language. Things like stress, intonation and pitch.
  139. Stress
    The emphasis placed on certain words, through volume, significant pauses beforehand or inflexion
  140. Intonation
    The rise and fall of an individals natural speaking voice or tge variation or tune to keep listeners interested. These naturally differ from nation to nation as different languages have different intonation qualities.
  141. Pitch
    The rise or fall of the voice. High pitch is squeaky and low pitch is deep.
  142. Turn taking
    Coordinated and rule governed cooperation between two or more participants of a conversation.
  143. Adjacency pair
    A moment in turn taking where one utterance constrains the response in some way. E.g. A question leads to an answer or a suggestion leads to an acceptance or declination.
  144. Back Channelling
    The process of giving feedback through encouraging noises and positive comments when a speaker is talking to encourage them.
  145. Running Repair
    The process of socially organising a conversation if two people find that they have been talking simultaneously.
  146. Topic marker
    An utterance that establishes the topic of a conversation.
  147. Topic Shifter
    An utterance that moves a conversation on to another topic. E.g. Anyway
  148. Interrupted Construction
    The breakdown of an utterance where half way through the speaker will completely change tact, focus or even topic and move onto something else, sometimes abandoning the original utterance mid word.
  149. False starts
    The speaker realises the beginning of an utterance isnt working and so effectively restarts by rephrasing
  150. Hesitation indicators
    Moments in discourse that indicate that the speaker is in some wat playing for time. This can be seen in certain forms of stuttering and in fillers such as um, err and ahh when the speaker us thinking of the nex thing to say.
  151. Fillers
    The insertion of words, phrases or noises into a speakers discourse E.g. Like, y'know, sort of etc. These can be due to the individuals own idiolect or convey some subliminal conversational purpose, depending on the context.
  152. Latch Ons
    When a speaker takes their turn immediately after the preceding speaker has finished speaking leaving no, or little pause. This can be due to an attempt for conversational dominance or a degree of familiarity between the speakers, among other reasons.
  153. Overlaps
    When one speaker speaks over another
  154. Glottal Stops
    The omission of (usually) dental sounds in the middle of words like butter, better etc. Occasionally these can occur at the ends of words like what.
  155. Non-fluency features
    Any feature which would indicate that the speaker is not speaking with fluency for whatever reason. E.g. someone might stammer if they are under severe pressure or a foreign speaker may invert syntax or elide certain words from their utterances.
  156. Tag question
    A question tagged onto the end of an statement. E.g. Its cold, isnt it?
  157. Vocative
    A direct reference to another speaker in discourse E.g. Bob, can you...?
  158. Elision
    The omission of a vowel or syllable in the pronounciation of a word OR the omission of a vowel at the end of a word when the subsequent word begins with a vowel. E.g. Its either one or t'other
  159. Code Switching
    The ability of a speaker to alter the register or clarity of their speech to suit a different social situation.
  160. Received Pronunciation
    The typical pronunciation associated with the social elite of Britain, The Queens English etc
  161. Accent
    The manner of a pronunciation particular to a certain geographical region.
  162. Regional Dialect
    The actual words used and the spoken grammar which is particular to a certain geographical region.
  163. Sociolect
    The vocabulary and spoken grammar which is particular to a certain social group.
  164. Idiolect
    The speech patterns of an individual.
  165. Alternate rhyme
    Lines of poetry where the rhyme is on every other line (ABAB)
  166. Caesura
    A mind line pause
  167. Couplet
    A two line verse
  168. End focus
    A change in the structure of the sentence to place emphasis on a closing sentence element
  169. Enjambment
    Run on lines
  170. Eye Rhyme
    Where the rhyme looks like it should rhyme but the sound is not exactly the same
  171. Foregrounding (poetry)
    A change in the structure of the sentence to place emphasis on an opening sentence element
  172. Form
    The structure and shape of the text
  173. Iambic
    A unit of poetic meter containing one unstressed syllable followed by one stressed syllable
  174. Internal Rhyme
    Where the rhyming sound occurs within a line of verse
  175. Octet
    An eight line verse
  176. Pentameter
    A unit of poetic meter containg five feet (10 syllables in total)
  177. Petrarchan/italian sonnet
    A poem of 14 lines, divided into an octet and a sestet, written in iambic pentameter, rhyming ABBAABBBA CDECDE
  178. Quatrain
    A four line verse
  179. Rhythm
    The pattern of syllables and stresses within poetry
  180. Sestet
    A six line verse
  181. Stanza
    The division of lines in a poem, also called a verse
  182. Verse type
    The type of poem E.g. sonnet, lyric, ballad, ode etc
  183. Volta
    The turning point in a sonnet
  184. Alexandrine
    A line of poetry that has 12 syllables. Comes from the medieval romance about Alexander the Great that was written in 12 syllable lines.
  185. Anapest
    A metrical foot of three syllables, two short or unstressed followed by one long, or stressed. E.g. Seventeen and to the moon
  186. Apostrophe
    Words that are spoken to a person who is absent or imaginary, or to an object or abstract idea. E.g. O world, I cannot hold three close enough
  187. Antecedent
    An antecedent is a word, phrase or clause that determines what a pronoun that follows refers to.
  188. Adjectival Noun
    An adjective can sometimes function as a noun. E.g. The young, the rich. Meaning the people who are rich and the people who are young.
  189. Adjuncts
    • An adjunct is part of a sentence and modifies the verb to show time, manner, place, frequency and degree. E.g. It is nearly done (nearly describes the degree to which the action has been done)
    • I go there twice a wekk (Twice a week describes the frequency with which the action is done)
  190. Allomorphs
    An allomorph is a different form of a morpheme. The regular simple past ending is -ed. In the verb advised, the ending is pronounced -d- but in walked, its pronounced -t- etc. A verb ending -e like hire taked -d. These are different forms of the same thing, they are allomorphs of the simple past tense ending.
  191. Attributive adjective
    An attributive adjective comes before a noun and not after a copula verb, like be, seem etc
  192. Article
    A, AN and THE are called articles. THE is the definite article. A and AN are both used the indefinite article. Could be any.
  193. Aspiration
    If there is a small puff of air following a speech sound, it is called aspiration. The -p- sound for instance is often aspirated when it comes at the beginning of a word.
  194. Academic Question
    An academic question is one who answer may be of interest but is of no practical use or importance.
  195. Apodosis
    • Apodisis is a term for the main clause in a conditional sentence.
    • If you tried it, youd probably love it.
    • The apodosis is youd probably love it and if you tried it is the protasis.
  196. Abbreviations
    • Many long words, especially those that we use a lot, are shortened.
    • E.g. Ad, Advert, Advertisement
  197. Antimetabole
    • Is a rhetorical device where a word or a phrase in one clause is repeated in the opposite order in the next clause or phrase
    • E.g. The absence of evidence is not the evidence of absence.
  198. Artificial language
    Is a language that has been invented, like Esperanto, created as an easily learned language for international communication.
  199. Aphorism
    An aphorism is a remark or sentence, often a definition, that conveys the truth about something in a concise and witty way.
  200. Aspect
    • Aspect in a verb shows whether the action or state is complete or not.
    • Shes doing a crossword puzzle (incomplete - progressive aspect)
    • Theyve washed up (complete - perfect aspect)
  201. Agreement
    When words have a grammatical relationship which affects the form of one or more of the elements, then they agree. THREE GIRLS shows agreement because the noun has the plural inflection which is required by the number. It is another way of saying concord.
  202. Ambitransitive Verbs
    • An ambitransitive verb can be both transitive and intransitive without changing the verb.
    • In the first sentence, read is used transitively with the direct opject newspaper, while in the second, there is no object, so it is being used intransitively.
  203. Agent
    • The agent is the person or entity that performs the action described by a verb. It is most commonly used in the Passive when the agent is used with BY
    • E.g. The politicians career was ruined by the scandal.
    • The scandal performed the act or ruining the politicians career. It is the agent.
  204. Acrostics
    An acrostic is a poem where the first letter of each line form a word or phrase when read together.
  205. Allegories
    An allegory is a narrative where similarities between the narrative are used symbolically to suggest something else; a journey could be used allegorically to suggest a persons journey through life etc.
  206. Anaphora
    • Words or phrases like pronouns are anaphora when they point backwards to something earlier in the text.
    • E.g. Helen needed the book and asked me to hurry up with it.
    • Here, IT is anaphoric because it refers back to the noun Book

    • The term is also used for the repetition of words or phrases for rhetorical effect
    • We shall not give in, we shall not falter, we shall not surrender
    • Here, the repetition of WE SHALL NOT is anaphoric.
  207. Alphabet Soup
    Alphabet soup is a term used to describe language with an excessive number of acronyms and abbreviations, often making things hard to understand.
  208. Affixes
    • An affix is a morpheme added to a word to change its function or meaning. There are three basic ways to do this;
    • Prefix - by adding a morpheme to the beginning of a word
    • Suffix - by addng -ly to the end of many adjectives, the advern can be formed
    • Infix - some languages add morphemes to the middle of thw word, but this system is rarely used in English.
  209. Allophones
    An allophone is a different form of the same sound or phoneme.
  210. Antagonyms
    A word that can mean the opposite of itself is an antagonym.

    • Buckle - (buckle your trousers - to hold together)
    • Buckle - (kness buckled - to collapse or fall apart)
  211. Animate Nouns
    A noun which refers to people, animals and living beings is an animate noun. Inanimate nouns refer to things that are not alive.
  212. Apposition
    Apposition is when a noun or noun phrase is placed next to another that explains it

    Thomas, the poet, died a few years ago.

    Explains itself.
  213. Appositive
    An appositive is a noun or noun phrase is placed next to another that gives some information, explanation or renames it

    The dog, a West Highland White, started barking.
  214. Antonyms
    An antonym is a word that measnt the opposite of another.

    • E.g. Fat/thin
    • Likely/unlikely
  215. Anadiplosis
    Anadiplosis is a rhetorical device where a word of phrase at the end of a sentence or phrase is repeated at the beginning of the next sentence.

    Here, we dont accept failure. Failure is not an option
  216. Ambigram
    An ambigram is a word that can be read from different angles, like NOON and MOW that can be turned 180 degrees and still be read as the same word.
  217. Accommodation
    Is when someone changes the way they speak when talking to someone. If they make their speech more similar to that of the person they are talking to, it is known as convergece. This could involve simplifying their language or adapting an accent closer to the other persons. If they make their speech less similar, it is divergence - they could exaggerate a regional accent or use more slang to make themselves harder to understand.
  218. Assimilation
    When sounds change because of the sound that comes after them, it is assimilation.
  219. Articulation
    Refers to the production of the different sounds of speech through the use of the speech organs; lungs, tonhue, lips jaw etc
  220. Backchaining
    Backchaining is a technique to help students pronounce words. Instead of starting at the beginning of the word, the teacher will say the word as a model and get the students to say the last syllable, or morpheme then work backwards to the whole word, which makes natural stress easier.
  221. Close Pair
    Two words with sounds that are very similar. E.g. Ship and sheep
  222. Cardinal Numbers
    One, two, three are cardinal numbers and can be written as words or using numerical symbols. Ordinal numbers are first, second, third etc
  223. Backronym
    Backronym is a word that combines backward and acronym. It is used when a group of letters is given words that are supposed to make the acronym or initialism up. For instance, when Microsoft released the internet search engine bing, some suggested that it stood for Bing Is Not Google, which fits the letters but is probably not what the makers had in mind when they created it.
  224. Base Form
    The base form of a verb is the same as the infinitive form, without to. For example, Come and see
  225. Bilingual dictionaries
    A bilingual dictionary gives words in two languages. Each language is grouped alphabetically in separate halves of the book with translations into the other language.
  226. Blended learning
    When multiple approaches towards learning are combined. The term is most commonly used where standard teaching exists alongside e learning, so a course could combine classroom lessons with online activities.
  227. Bottom up language learning
    Language learning that starts with basic language units like words and then moves on to more complex structures. This includes methods that concentrates on grammatical and sentence structures rather than looking at meaning of texts as a whole.
  228. Capital letters
    In writing, letters can be written two ways, T or t. T is a capital letter or upper case and are used at the beginning of a sentence or for a proper noun.
  229. Cataphora
    • Words or phrases like pronouns are cataphora when they point forwards to something later on in the text.
    • As he was unaccustomed to it, Jake found the pressure very hard to deal with.
    • Here, it is cataphoric because it refers to the noun, pressure.
  230. Causative Verbs
    • We use the causative when we do not carry out the actions ourselves, but are responsible for the action being performed
    • E.g. She had her car serviced last week. (She didnt service the car herself but the car was services because of her, she took it to the garage and asked them to do it)
  231. Chiasmus
    Is a figure of speech in which two clauses are related to each other through a reversal of structures to make a larger point, though the reversal does not have to feature the same words as in antimetabole, which could be considered to be a type of chiasmus.
  232. Clause
    A part of a sentence that usually contains a subjecta and a verb. It is usually connected to the other part of the sentence by a conjunction. It is not a complete sentence on its own.
  233. Cleft Sentences
    • A cleft sentence is one where the orginal clause is divided into two clauses
    • John took the money

    • It was John who took the money
    • It was the money that John took.

    The original sentence has a single clause, but in the two cleft sentences, there are two clauses and this can have the effect of changing the emohasis to focus on John in the first and the money in the second.
  234. Cognate
    A cognate is a word that is similar in meaning and form to a word it is related to in another language.
  235. Coleman Liau Index
    • Is a readability test that tries to look at how difficult a text is to understand and to express that as the grade level a student in the USA would need to be able to read it.
    • Uses the number of characters in a word which is more easily calculated that syllables.
  236. Collective Nouns
    • A collective noun refers to a group of people, animals or objects as a group, family, company etc. When a collective noun is used in the singular, the verb can be either singular or plural.
    • The company has decided to open ten new outlets
    • The police are here
    • Everyone doesnt like me.
  237. Colligation
    Colligation is a type of collocation but where a lexical item is linked to a grammatical one. Surprising and amazing are nearly synonymous.
  238. Complement
    • A complement is the part of a sentence that comes after the verb and is needed to make the sentence complete.
    • Subject Complement
    • He is a surveyor

    • Object Complement
    • She sent him the fax.

    • Adjectival Complement
    • They will be happy.

    • Prespositional complement
    • They talked about what needed doing.
  239. Complex Prepositions
    • A complex preposition is a group of words that functions as a single preposition
    • E.g. IN FRONT OF
  240. Concord
    • When words have a grammatical relationship which affects the form of one or more of the elements then they are showing concord.
    • They are shows concord because the plural subject takes the evrb form associated with the plural.
  241. Concordancers
    A concordancer is a kind of search engine designed for language study. If you enter a word, it looks through a large body of text and lists every single example of the word.
  242. Concrete Noun
    A concrete noun refers to objects and substances, including people and animals that exist physically. They can either be an uncountable noun or a countable.
  243. Conditional Perfect
    • It is used in the 3rd conditional to talk about imaginary situations in the past
    • E.g. If she had seen the advert, she would have applied for the job.
  244. Conjunctions
    A conjunction is a word like AND BUT WHEN OR etc and connects words, phrases and clauses together.
  245. Conjuncts
    • A conjunct relates what is said in a sentence to anoter sentence. As such, it is not part of the strucutre if the sentence in which it is used.
    • E.g. However, things turned out much worse than expected. (HOWEVER relates what is said to contrast it with previous information about the speakers expectations)
  246. Contranym
    A word that can mean the opposite of itself.
  247. Coordinating Conjunction
    Join two items of equal importance. For, and, nor, but, or, yet and so are the coordinating conjunctions in English.
  248. Copula Verbs
    • A copula verb is a verb that connects the subject to the complement. They are sometimes called linking verbs.
    • That food smells nice
    • (Smells connects the subject to the adjective that describes it)
  249. Count Nouns
    • A count noun is a noun that has both a singular and a plural form. Plurals of count nouns are normally made by the addition of S
    • A horse
    • Two horses
  250. Creoles
    A creole is a pidgin that has developed into a native language for a group of speakers. While a pidgin has a restricted vocabulary and grammar, a creole usually develops more complex structures and has a greater vocabulary.
  251. Dangling Modifiers
    Dangling Modifiers or misplaced modifiers are words, phrases or clauses where is it unclear which element of the sentence they are modifying because they could either be modifying the subject or object.

    Having trouble sleeping, the TV helpsme get through the night.

    Having trouble sleeping is a dangling modifier as it appears to modify the subject, TV, though clearly the person means they have trouble sleeping.
  252. Defining Relative Clauses
    A defining relative clause gives essntial information about the noun or noun phrase it modifies, without which the sentences wouldnt make sense as the listener or reader would not be able to identify the noun in the sentence.

    The hotel that we stayed in wasnt bad (THAT WE STAYED IN tells the listener which hotel we are talking about, it defines the hotel)
  253. Deixis
    Words or phrases that can only be understood from the context of the text or utterance where they are found deictic

    Toms interview was about to start and he was feeling nervous about it.

    Here, from the context, we know that he refers to Tom and it refers to the interview. These are examples of deixis
  254. Demonstrative Adjectives
    Demonstrative adjectives (this, that, these, those) show whether the noun they refer to is singular or plural and whether it is located near to or far from the speaker or writer.
  255. Demonstratives
    A demonstrative indicates whether something is near or far from the speaker or writer and also shows singular or plural.

    • This book (singular, near)
    • That book (singular, distant)
    • These books (plural, near)
    • Those books (plural, distant)
  256. Deontic Modality
    When a modal verb is used to affect a situation, by giving permission etc.

    You can go when you have finished.

    Here, the speaker is giving permission, so there is deontic modality used to control the situation.
  257. Descriptive Grammar
    A descriptive grammar looks at the way a language is actually used by its speakers and then attempts to analyse it and formulate rules about the structure. Descriptive grammar does not deal with what is good or bad language use; forms and structures that might not be used by speakers of standard english would be regarded as valid and included. It is grammar based on the way a language actually is and not how some thing it should be.
  258. Diachronic
    Diachronic language studies look at the development of language over a period of time.
  259. Diacritic
    • A diacritic is a mark added to a letter to change the pronunciation and it can appear above or below the letter. Modern english does not use diacritics.
    • Café
    • Cliché
    • Naìve
  260. Dialects
    A dialect is a variety of a language that is spoken by a group in a particular area or of a social group or class. It can have a different accent and pronunciation, vocabulary and use different grammatical structures.
  261. Diglossia
    A diglossia is a language that has two forms, where one is regarded as prestigious and associated with the language of law and government etc and the other form is colloquial form that is widely used.
  262. Diminutive
    • A diminutive is an affix added to a word to mean little, small young etc
    • Piglet (pig + let = young pig)
  263. Direct Object
    • The direct object of a verb is created, affeced or altered by the action of a verb, or appreciated or sensed by the subject of the verb
    • She closed the door (door is directly affected by her action)
  264. Direct Speech
    Direct Speech is used to give the exact words used by another speaker. The words are usually given in speech marks
  265. Discourse Analysis
    Discourse analysis is the area of linguistics that is concerned with how we build up meaning in the larger communicative rather than grammatical units, meaning in a text, paragraph, conversation etc rather than in a single sentence.
  266. Discourse Marker
    • A discourse marker is a word or phrase used in conversation to signal the speakers intention to mark a boundary:
    • Anyway, I'll have to be going now.

    The function of anyway is too signal a change in the direction of the conversation, in this case to finish it, so ANYWAY is a discourse marker here. They can be used to focus, clarify, contrast, change the subject, show agreement/disagreement etc
  267. Disjuncts
    A disjunct expresses the speaker or writers attitude to what is being described in the sentence.

    E.g. Fortunately, we managed to get there on time (FORTUNATELY shows us that the speaker was pleased about the result of the action)
  268. Disyllabic
    A disyllabic word has two syllables.
  269. Distransitive Verb
    • A distransitive verb is one that takes both a direct object and an indirect object.
    • EG, He gave her the letter (THE LETTER is the direct object, what he gave, and HER is the indirect object, the person he gave it to. This sentence can also be written HE GAVE THE LETTER TO HER)
  270. Dont-levelling
    Dont levelling is a feature of some variants or dialects of English in which the auxiliary verb form doesnt that would be in Standard English is replaced by dont (HE DONT LIKE IT). Although it is found in many dialects, it is widely regarded as incorrect and would be marked as such in examinations.
  271. Dyad
    Two people speaking is a dyad. The smallest unit of communication. Relationships between people, employer, employee, friends etc
  272. Dynamic Modality
    Dynamic modality does not express the speakers opinion, nor does the speaker affect the situation.

    He can speak perfect French.

    Here, the speaker is describing a factual situation about the subject of the sentence.
  273. Dynamic Verb
    A dynamic verb is a verb that shows movement.
  274. EAP
    EAP is an acronym for English for Academic Purposes
  275. EFL
    EFL is an acronym for English as a Foreign Language
  276. Eggcorn
    Eggcorns are words or phrases that are used by mistake, usually because the homophones or sound similar to the original words. People often write WET YOUR APPETITE but the original expression is WHET YOU APPETITE but the two words sound the same.
  277. Embedded Questions
    • An embedded question is a part of a sentence that would be a question if it were on its own, but is not a question in the context of the sentence
    • E.g. I dont know where she has gone
    • Could you tell me where the bank is
  278. Emphatic Forms
    • Emphatic Forms, sometimes called the emphatic tenses or emphatic mood, are made with the auxiliary verb DO in the present or past tense and the base form of the verb.
    • E.g. He doesnt work very hard

    I dont agree with you - he does work very hard.

    In the second sentence, the speaker uses the emphatic form DOES WORK as a way of contradicting the first speaker.
  279. Endophora
    Words or phrases like pronouns are endophora when they point backwards or forwards to something in the text.

    E.g. As he was late, Harry wanted to phone his boss and tell her what had happened.

    Here, HE is endophoric because it refers to the proper noun HARRY and HER refers back to the noun, BOSS.
  280. Epanadiplosis
    Is the repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning and end of a phrase, clause or sentence.

    E.g. Laugh with those that laugh and weep with those that weep.
  281. Epanalepsis
    Epanalepsis is the repetition of a word or phrase, but in no particular position as long as there are words between the repetitions.

    E.g. In three weeks, England will have her neck wrung like a chicken. Some chicken, some neck.
  282. Epistemic Modality
    When a modal verb is used to express the speakers opinion about a statement, then this is epistemic modality.

    It might be true.

    Here, the speaker is expressing their attitudes about whether something is true or not, accepting there is a possibily but not being certain.
  283. Epistrophe
    Epistrophe is the repetition of a wor or phrase at the end of different phrases, clauses or sentences.

    E.g. When I was a child, I spoke as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child.
  284. Epizeuxis
    Is the repetition of words or phrases next to each other.

    E.g. A rose is a rose is a rose.
  285. Ergative Verbs
    Ergative verbs are found in sentences where the verb affects the subject.

    E.g. The sun melted the butter.
  286. ESL
    ESL is an acronym, for English as a Second Language.
  287. ESOL
    ESOL is an acronym for English for Speakers of Other Languages.
  288. Estuary English
    Is a name given to the forms or English widely spoken in South East England and the East of England, especially along the River Thames.
  289. Etymological Dictionaries
    Traces a words development over time, giving historical examples to show changes.
  290. Exophoric Language
    It points to something outside the language of the text, which is understoof in the context.

    Take a look at this.

    Here, THIS refers to something that the speaker and listener can see and understand, but which has no meaning outside the context - we dont know what THIS is.
  291. False Cognate
    A false cognate is a word which has a similar form to a word in another language but has a different meaning.
  292. Figure of Speech
    Is where a word or words are used to create an effect, often where they do not have their own original or literal meaning.

    If someone says that they are STARVING, they do not mean that they are in fact dying of hunger, but that they are very hungry. This is a simple example of a figure of speech, where the word is used to increase that state that they are describing.
  293. Finite Verbs
    The finite forms of a verb are the forms where the verb shows tense, person or singular plural. Non finite verb forms have no person, tense or number.

    I go, she goes, he went

    To go, going
  294. First Conditional
    The first conditional is for future actions dependent on the result of another future action or event, where there is a reasonable possibilty of the conditions for the action being satisfied.

    E.g. If he gets here soon, Ill speak to him about it.
  295. Function
    The purpose for an utterance or piece of language is its function, such as making a request, giving an order, complaining, giving a compliment etc. In teaching, its functions may be chosen and the language used in varies types.
  296. Future Perfect
    • 1. For actions to be completed before a specific future time, but the exact time is unimportant.
    • E.g. She'll have finished it by next week.

    • 2. When making assumptions about actions that are finished now.
    • Its ok to phone because he'll have got home by now.
  297. Future Perfect Progressive
    The future perfect progressive is used for actions that will be unfinished, but have reached a certain stage.

    The time next month, I'll have been living here for three years.
  298. Future Progressive
    The future progressive is used for actions that will be unfinished at a certain time in the future, or for things that will happen in the normal course of events, rather than being part of your plans and intentions.
  299. Gender
    A grammatical category in many languages in which a noun, pronoun, article and adjective is masculine, feminine or neutral. Does not occur in English, only when referring to a male/female animal/person.

    • Lion (male)
    • Lioness (female)
    • Waiter (male)
    • Waitress (female)
  300. Gerunds
    • A gerund is a verb when it acts as a noun.
    • E.g. Studying is good for you.
  301. Gist
    When you try to get the general meaning from a text, without concentrating on the individual words, you are reading or listening for gist.
  302. Glossary
    A glossary is a list of words or phrases used in a particular field with their definitions. Glossaries are often found at the back of a specialist or academic book as an appendix to the text.
  303. Grammar
    A grammar is a description of the rules of the structure if a language, the way words combine, the order they come in, the way they change according to their relationship to other words, how they build up into units like a sentence etc.
  304. Helping Verb
    DO, BE and HAVE are the helping verbs in English.
  305. Heteronyms
    Are words that are spelled the same but are pronounced differently.

    • E.g.
    • Bow
    • Row
    • Read
  306. Historic Present
    The historic present is the use of the present tnese when describing past events. It is said the make the narrative more vivid and bring it closer to the reader or listener.
  307. Homograph
    Homographs are words that are written the same way but have different meaning and often different pronunciations.

    E.g. Wind can mean the movement of air when talking about the weather but can also mean something which is not straight, like a road. These are different words with different pronunciations although they are written the same way.
  308. Hyponyms
    A hyponym is a word that represnts different categories covered by a superordinate.

    • Superordinate: Animal
    • Hyponym: cate, dog, horse etc
  309. Hypothetical Questions
    A hypothetical question is one asked out of interest as the answer will have no effect on the situation.
  310. Illustrated Dictionary
    Uses picture, visuals, graphics and diagrams to group words together into logical groups and allow any student to understand what the word means.
  311. Imperatives
    Imperatives are verbs used to give orders, commands and instructions.
  312. Inanimate Nouns
    Refers to things that are not alive. An animate noun refers to living things such as people and animals.
  313. Inchoative Verbs
    • An inchoative verb is a verb that describes a change of state.
    • E.g The apples ripened
    • He has aged a lot.
  314. Indefinite Pronoun
    An indefinite pronoun refers to unspecified people, things, places etc

    • Anyone can tell you.
    • Someone took it.
    • Nothing was done to help the victim.
    • Many tried but few succeeded.
  315. Indirect Objects
    • The indirect object of a verb is not directly affected by the action, but can either receive the direct object or have the action done for them.
    • E.g. She sent James the letter.
  316. Indirect Speech
    • Indirect speech is used to communicate what someone else said, but without using the exact words. The tenses of the verbs are often changed.
    • E.g. He said that he was going to come. (The persons exact words were IM GOING TO COME)
  317. Inductive Antonomasia
    • When a specific term like ASPIRIN becomes used generically, this process is called inductive antonomasia.
    • E.g. Aspirin
    • Tippex
    • Hoover
  318. Infinitives
    The infinitive usually occurs with TO (for example, to go, to come, to wear etc), except after an auxiliary or modal verb. It is a verb form that shows no person, tense or aspect.

    • I had to go
    • I must go
    • I want to sing
    • You dont know her
  319. Inflection
    Is a system in which words forms are altered by an affix. Nouns in English can be changed to show plurality, the 3rd person singular of most verbs is inflected by the addition of -s.
  320. Interjections
    Is a word or phrase used in speech to gain attention, to exclaim, protest or command. Interjections can be used to show emotion such as surprise or shock. Often found at the beginning of a sentence.
  321. Interrogative Pronouns
    • A WH- question word, when it acts as a pronoun substituting the person or thing being asked about, is an interrogative pronoun.
    • E.g. What is her phone number?
    • Who is in charge?
  322. Intransitive Verbs
    • Is one that doesnt take an object.
    • E.g. They arrived. (The verb does not require an object to complete it)
  323. Irregular Plurals
    There are many different types of irregular nouns in English that do not add a final -s to make them plural. Some do not change (sheep), while others charge internal letters (woman, women), or add letters, (child, children)
  324. Irregular Verb
    Is one that does not take the -ed ending for the past simple and past participle forms.
  325. Jargon
    • Is the language used by people who work in a particular area or who have a common interest.
    • E.g. Criminals, computer experts, lawyers etc
  326. Leading Questions
    A leading question is one that suggests an answer, that implies that there is a proper answer.
  327. Limericks
    A limerick is a short, humourous poem. It is generally about five lines long, with a strong rhyme and often using sexual innuendo as its source of humour.
  328. Linking Verb
    • Is a verb that connects the subject to the complement. They are sometimes called copula verbs.
    • E.g. That food smells nice.
    • (Smells connects the subject to the adjective that describes it)
  329. Litotes
    • Litotes is a kind of understatment, where the speaker or writer uses a negative of a word ironically, to mean the opposite.
    • E.g. She's not the friendliest person I know (she is an unfriendly person)
  330. Loan Words
    • A loan word is a word taken from a different language.
    • Menu is a loan from french
    • Marmalada is a loan from portuguese
  331. Main Verbs
    The main verb is the most important verb in a sentence and without it, the sentence would not be complete.
  332. Major Sentences
    A major sentence is a term used for a full sentence, containing a main verb and a subject that is either present or readily identifiable.
  333. Mass Nouns
    • A mass noun has no plural form, often referring to a substance.
    • E.g. Butter, smoke, money
  334. Meiosis
    Is another term for understatement where someone represents something as less than it is for a rhetorical effect, often used ironically.
  335. Metaplasm
    Is the alteration of a word by adding, omitting or transposing sounds or syllables, or the letters that represent them.
  336. Metanymy
    Is a word or phrase that is used to represent something that it is closely associated with; Wall Street represents the American financial world, much of which is located in Wall Street.
  337. Middle Verbs
    Is one that is grammatically active, though the meaning is closer to the passive. In some languages, this is recognisd as a voice.
  338. Minced Oath
    • A minced oath is a euphemism where a swer word is replaced by something less offensive, like a word that has a similar sound.
    • E.g. freaking instead of fucking
    • Dam instead of darn
  339. Minimal Pair
    • Consists of two words that have just one small difference in sound with different meanings.
    • E.g. Sheep and Ship
  340. Minor Sentence
    A minor sentence is one that does not necessarily have a main verb in it but which can be understoof as a complete unit of meaning.
  341. Minority Language
    A minority language is a language spoken by a minority within a country, so Welsh, which is spoken by about a fifth of the population of Wales is a minority language there and English is the majority language.
  342. Mnemonics
    A mnemonic is something used to help remember something. Verses and lists are commonly used.
  343. Mondegreen
    A mondegreen is a misinterpretation caused by words that are homophones or sound very similar. E.g. KISS THE SKY is in a Purple Haze but many thought it said KISS THIS GUY
  344. Mood
    Mood shows the attitude of the speaker or the writer to the action or state described by the verb.
  345. Morphemes
    • A morpheme is the smallest unit of meaning. A word can contain more than one morpheme.
    • Unable can be divided into two morphemes -un and -able whereas the word mahogany cant be divided into anything smaller.
  346. Negative Pronouns
    A negative pronoun refers to a negative noun phrase, no one, nobody, neither, none and nothing are the negative pronouns used in English.
  347. Negatives
    A negative structure can show the absence of a noun or any other substative, the non performance of the action described by a verb, or the non existance in the case of a stative vern. An adverb or adjective can equally be negated so that it expresses the absence of the quality or characteristics described. Negation can be used the break the linking function of a preposition so that the items governed by it are shown to be separate.
  348. Non defining relative clauses
    • Gives extra information about a noun or noun phrase and has commas at both ends.
    • My sister, who lives in France, is coming to stay with me next week.
  349. Non finite verbs
    The non finite forms of a verb have no tense, person or singular plural. The infinitive and present and past participles are the nonfinite parts of a verb.
  350. Non-Rhetoric
    Non rhetoric speakers do not pronounce the letter R after vowels in words like WORLD. They do pronounce it before a vowel.
  351. Noun as Adjective
    We can use a noun as an adjective when it precedes a noun that it modifies; a mountain bike is a bike designed for riding up mountains. Mountains functions as an adjective modifying the noun BIKE.
  352. Noun Phrases
    A noun phrase is either a single noun or pronoun or a group of words containging a noun or pronoun that function together as a noun or pronoun, as the subject or object of a verb.
  353. Noun
    A noun is a word used to refer to people, animals, objects, substances, states, events and feelings. Nouns can be either subject or an object of a verb, can be modified by an adjective and can take an article or determiner.
  354. Number
    In grammar, number is whether a word is singular or plural, especially nouns and demonstratives.
  355. Numerals
    A numeral is a word or phrase used for numbers; one and first etc
  356. Objects
    • The object of a verb is created, affected or altered by the action of a verb, or appreciated or sensed by the subject of the verb.
    • E.g. He wrote the book (book is the object, created by the action of writing)
  357. Ordinal Numbers
    First, Second, Third etc are ordinal numbers, usually coming before a noun. They can be written as 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th etc
  358. Otheopy
    Otheopy is the study of pronunciation or correct pronunciation.
  359. Palindromes
    • Is a word or phrase that is spelled the same way forwards as backwards.
    • E.g. Madam
  360. Paragraph
    A paragraph is an organisational feature of written English, any many other languages as well. It is a group of sentences, or possibly a singular sentence, seperated from the rest of the text by a space above and below it or by indenting the first line. Usually just about one subject.
  361. Parsing
    If you break a sentence or phrase to identify the words gramatically, you parse it.
  362. Part of Speech
    • There are eight categories which form the parts of speech. Each part of speech explains not what the word is, but how the word is used
    • Verbs
    • Nouns
    • Pronouns
    • Adjectives
    • Adverbs
    • Prepositions
    • Conjunctions
    • Interjections
  363. Participles
    The present participle is formed by adding -ing to the base form of a verb

    The past participle is formed by adding -ed to the base form, unless it is an irregular verb.
  364. Particles
    A particle is a word that does not fit into the conventional grammatical categories.
  365. Passive Voice
    • The passive occurs in most aspects and tenses and changes the emphasis.
    • E.g. My rood was damaged by the storm (the storm caused the damage, but the cause is less important to me than the damage to my room, because I will now have to repair it)
  366. Past perfect
    • For actions that happened before related past events or times.
    • E.g. When she arrived, all the tickets had gone.
  367. Past Perfect Progressive (past perfect continuous)
    Is used for actions that were unfinished when another action took place.

    E.g. I had been living there for years before I got married.
  368. Past Progressive (Past continuous)
    It is used for actions and states that were unfinished at a certain time in the past or to stress the duration of something.
  369. Past Simple (Simple Past)
    The past simple tense, also called the simple past, is used for past actions that happened either at a specific time, which can either be given by a time phrase (yesterday, last year etc) or understood from the context.
  370. Perfect Aspect
    • The perfect aspect is formed with the auxiliary verb TO HAVE and the past participle. It is used for finished actions that are relevant to the time referred to or ones that continue up to the time referred to.
    • E.g. She's worked here for donkeys years
    • I've lost my keys
  371. Performative Verbs
    A performative verb is a verb where saying it or writing it performs the actions itself. If you say I RESIGN, then saying it performs the action of resignation.
  372. Personal pronoun
    I, YOU, HE, SHE, IT, WE and THEY are the subject personal pronouns used in English. They are used to substitute the names of the people or things that perform actions.
  373. Phatic Speech
    Consists of words or phrases that have a social function and are not meant literallly. When people are thanked, they often say YOU'RE WELCOME in reply, and this is meant to show politeness and not to be interpreted as literally welcoming them.
  374. Philology
    A philogist studies language scientifically through tracing developments over time or by comparing langauges or varieties of a language etc.
  375. Phonemes
    A phoneme is the smallest sound in a language.
  376. Phonetics
    Is the study of the sounds of spoken language.
  377. Phrasal Verbs
    A phrasal verb consists of a verb and a preposition or adverb that modifies or changes the meaning. GIVE UP is a phrasal verb that means STOP DOING something, which is very different from GIVE.
  378. Phrases
    A phrase is a group of words that go together, but do not make a complete sentence.
  379. Pidgin
    A pidgin is a language that develops when groups speaking different langauges have regular contact and need to communicate with one another. It usually has a restricted vocabulary and a simplified grammar.
  380. Plagiarism
    The use of quotes, words or ideas taken from a source without crediting them, which is regarded as a form of cheating in schools and universities.
  381. Pleonasm
    • Is the use of an excessive number of words to say something.
    • E.g. Could you repeat that again? (Again is unnecessary)
  382. Plurals
    The plural is the form of a verb, pronoun, noun etc used when talking or writing about something of which there is more than one.
  383. Poetry
    Is language where rhythm is an essential part of the communicative act, where words are used in a way similar to music to create an effect on the reader. Language which does not use rhythm and other effects in this way is called prose.
  384. Polyptoton
    Is when words are repeated that are not identical but are derived from the same root.
  385. Polysemy
    Refers to a word that has two or more similar meanings.

    • E.g. The house is at the foot of the mountain.
    • One of his shoes felt too tight for his foot.
  386. Portmanteau Word
    • Is formed out of parts of other words.
    • E.g. Oxbridge - Oxford and Cambridge
    • Brunch - breakfast and lunch
  387. Possessive Adjective
    MY, YOUR, HIS, HER, ITS, OUR and THEIR are the English possessive adjectives, used with nouns to show possession or ownership.
  388. Postmodifier
    Is placed after the word that it modifies.

    E.g. He was the man chosen for the job (Here CHOSEN modifies the word MAN by telling us which man it was and comes after the word it is modifying)
  389. Pragmatics
    Looks at aspects of meaning that are not found directly in the words and structures used, so it looks beyond semantics at how we encode social conventions and implied meanings into our language.
  390. Predicate
    • A simple sentence can be divided into two parts, tje subject and the predicate, which is the verb and any complement of the verb which can include the object, adverbial etc.
    • She laughed
    • She wrote a book.
  391. Predicative Adjectives
    A predicative adjective comes after a copula verb (linking verb) and not before a noun.
  392. Prefix
    Are groups of letters that can be placed before a word to modify its meaning.
  393. Premodifiers
    A premodifier is a word that is placed before the word it modifies.
  394. Prepisitional Phrases
    • Is the combination of a preposition and its complement.
    • She left early in order to get to the bank.
  395. Prepositions
    • Is a word that puts something into time or place.
    • E.g. In, above, between
    • Before, after, next
  396. Prescriptive grammars
    Lays out rule about the structure of a language. It deals with what the grammarian believes to be right and wrong, good or bad language use, not following the rules will generate incorrect language.
  397. Progressive Aspect
    The progressive, or continuous aspect is formed with the auxiliary verb TO BE + -ing, the present participle. It shows that an action or state, past, present or futurem was, is or will be unfinished at the time referred to.
  398. Proper Adjective
    • Is an adjective that is written with a capital letter.
    • E.g. Japanese
  399. Prose
    Prose and poetry are the two basic categories which language can be divided into.
  400. Prosody
    Is the study of the various rhythms used in poetry.
  401. Protasis
    Is a term for the IF clause in a conditional sentence.
  402. Punctuation
    The symbols used in written language to indicate the end of a sentence or a clause, or to indicate that is it a question.
  403. Quantifiers
    • Expresses quantity.
  404. Question
    Is a sentence or phrase that shows that the speaker wants the listener to supply them with some information, to perform a task or in some other way.
  405. Question tag
    • Can be made by making a statement and putting an auxiliary verb and a pronoun at the end
    • E.g. She's coming, isn't she?
  406. Reciprocal Pronouns
    • Phrases like EACH OTHER. They show that an action is two way
    • E.g. Jane and Helen greeted each other (This means that Jane greeted Helen and Helen greeted Jane)
  407. Redundancy
    The use of unnecessary words or phrases that express something already said in the utterance or sentence.
  408. Reflexive Pronouns
  409. Regression
    Is a backward movement of the eye when reading a line of text.
  410. Regular Verbs
    A regular verb is one that follows the pattern of taking -ed for the past simple and past participle.
  411. Relative Clause
    A clause that modifies a noun in a sentence, or a noun phrase, is a relative clause.
  412. Reported Speech
    Is used to communicate what someone else said but without using the exact words.
  413. Resultative Adjective
    • Is an adjective that is placed postpositively and reflects a change that occurs by action of the verb on the noun.
    • E.g.
    • He cooked the meat RARE
    • She painted the fence WHITE.
  414. Rhetoric
    Rhotic speakers pronounce the letter R after vowels in all positions.
  415. Rhyme
    When words at the end of lines of poetry have the same sound so that they work together to produce an effect, the poem has rhyme.
  416. Scanning
    Scanning a text is a reading technique where the reader looks for specific information rather than trying to absorb all the information.
  417. Sentence
    Is a group of words beginning with a capital letter and ending with a full stop, exclamation or question mark in written language, containing a main verb.
  418. Sentence Fragment
    Does not necessarily have a verb in it, but can be understood as a complete unit of meaning.
  419. Simple Sentence
    Contains one subject and one main verb. It contains one independent clause.
  420. Singular
    This is the form of a noun, pronoun, verb etc that is employed when speaking or writing about something which there was only one.
  421. Spoonerism
    • Mixing up the first few letters of two nearby words
    • E.g. Hissed the mystery lectures
    • Missed the history lectures
  422. Standard English
    Is the variety of English that is held by many to be correct in the sense that it shows none of the regional or other variations that are considered by some to be ungrammatical or non standard english.
  423. Stanza
    When a poem is divided into groups of lines, often with a regular pattern.
  424. Subject
    The subject of a sentence is the noun, pronoun or noun phrase that precedes and governs the main verb.
  425. Subjunctive
    • Is the mood of a verb used to show hopes, doubts, wishes etc. It is not used very much in Modern English.
    • E.g. I recommend he be promoted.
  426. Subordinating Conjunction
    • Introduces a dependent clause, which depends on the rest of the sentence for its meaning and cannot stand alone.
    • E.g. UNLESS we leave now, we'll be late.
  427. Substantive
    Is a tern covering all words that can function like a noun.
  428. Suffix
    Are groups of letters placed after a word to modify its meaning or change it into a different word group.
  429. Superordinate
    Is a general term that includes various different words, representing narrower categories.

    • E.g.
    • Superordinate; Animal
    • Hyponym; cat, dog, horse etc
  430. Swear Words
    The unacceptable and rude words of a language are known as the swear words. They include the strongest and most offensive words.
  431. Syllable
    A word can be divided into syllables. Each syllable is a sound that can be said without interruption are are usually a vowel which can have consonants before or after it.
  432. Synchronic
    A synchronic approach looks at language at a particular point in time, rather than over time.
  433. Synonyms
    • Is a word that means the same as another, or more or less the same. If a word is slightly different, it is a near-synonym.
    • E.g. Movie and film.
  434. Tag Question
    • Can be made by making a statement and putting an auxiliary verb and a pronoun at the end.
    • She's coming, isn't she?
  435. Tautology
    • Is where two near synonyms are placed consecutively or very close together for effect.
    • E.g. free gift
  436. TEFL
    Is an acronym for Teaching English as a Foreign Language
  437. Tense
    Tense is used to show the relation between the action or state described by the verb and the time, which is reflected in the form of the verb. Present, past and future tense.
  438. Text
    A text is a body of language; it could consist of a single word like LADIES or GENTLEMEN on a toilet door right up to a complete book and can either be written or spoken.
  439. Tmesis
    • When a word is split into two and another word is added in the middle to give extra emphasis.
    • Fan-freaking-tastic
  440. Top Down Language Learning
    Involves looking at language as a whole and concentrating on the meaning of gist rather than the grammatical structures or individual words.
  441. Topic Sentences
    Is a sentence that sets out the main idea or topic of a paragraph. It is often the first sentence, especially when arguing a point where it may well be followed by further information, examples etc. If the writing is exploring a point, it frequently comes as the last sentence, drawing a conclusion from the argument.
  442. Transition
    Is a word or phrase that helps the flow, unity or clarity from one word to another.
  443. Transitive Verb
    • Is one that takes an object
    • E.g. He opened the door
  444. Uncountable Noun
    • An uncountable noun has no plural.
    • E.g. Milk, water, wood, air etc
  445. Understatement
    The opposite of a hyperbole, understatement is used to make something appear smaller or less important than it really is. It can be used to entertain or to reduce the importance of the truth.
  446. Unvoiced Sounds
    • English sounds are organised into unvoiced and voiced sounds. With unvoiced sounds, the vocal chords are not vibrated, so there is no vibration in the throat.
    • E.g. P, t, k, s, h
  447. Utterance
    Is a complete unit of speech, ranging from a single word to the longest uninterrupted speech possible.
  448. Verb group
    Consists of a verb and an auxiliary verb or a modal verb.
  449. Verb Phrase
    • The verb phrase is the main verb plus the complement, object and/or adverbial.
    • She sent me a lovely birthday card (everything except the subject SHE, is the verb phrase)
  450. Voice
    Voice shows the relationship between the verb and the noun phrases connected to it. There are two voices in English; the passive and the active.
  451. Voiced Sounds
    • English sounds are organised into voiced and unvoiced sounds. With voiced sounds, the vocal chords are vibrated, which can be felt in the throat.
    • E.g. B, D, G, V
  452. Word
    Is the smallest unit of a language that can exist on its own in either written or spoken language.
  453. Yes/no questions
    Are questions that can be answered with yes or no.
  454. Zero Article
    • Is when a noun is used withouth THE, A or AN
    • E.g. Time is money,
  455. Zero Conditional
    • Is used for actions that are always true when the conditions are satisfied.
    • E.g. If you put sugar in coffee, it tastes sweet.
  456. Zeugma
    • Where a word is used to link two words together or phrases. The term is also used where the link between the words is unusual or mixed.
    • He arrived in a taxi and a hurry.
  457. Active Voice
    • The voice used to indicate that the grammatical subject of the verb is performing the action or causing the happening denoted by the verb.
    • E.g. The boy threw the ball
  458. Adjective Clause
    A relative clause that modifies a noun or pronoun
  459. Abusive Taboo
    Swearing torwards another person;to offend
  460. Auxiliary taboo
    • Swearing attached to something other than a person
    • E.g. Its bloody raining
  461. Challenging
    Not seeing eye to eye, arguing. Confronting the topic.
  462. Commissives
    Speaker committed to a certain course of action. E.g. bet, guarantee, promise and swear
  463. Cohesion
    When lexis in a text creates a chain of meanings throughout a text.
  464. Descriptivism
    Belief that all types of language are acceptable - non judgemental
  465. Directives
    • Speaker tries to get a hearer to do something
    • Ask, challenge, command, request etc
  466. Expletive taboo
    Swearing to express emotion, not directed towards others.
  467. Focussing
    Focus on initiated conversation
  468. Graphology
    Study of visual features of a text.
  469. Humourous taboo
    Swearing towards another person, teasing; can convey a close relationship
  470. Initiating
    Starting up a new topic
  471. Modifier
    Words that describe a noun that can include adjectives, verbs and nouns themselves.
  472. Non Count Nouns
    Names for things which cannot be counted. E.g. bread, water, flour, tea etc
  473. Non fluency features
    Occur because we seldom plan exactly what we are going to say in advance
  474. Pauses
    Natural breathing spaces
  475. Phatic talk
    Not necessary, but polite. Makes conversation run smoothly.
  476. Phonology
    Study of sounds in a language
  477. Prescriptivism
    Belief that one type of language is acceptable - judgemental
  478. Referential talk
    Giving information or talking about a particular topic.
  479. Representatives
    Speaker committed to the truth of a proposition. Words such as AFFIRM, BELIEVE, CONCLUDE, REPORT are used
  480. Taboo
    Forbidden, swearing
  481. Tone
    • Formal/informal
    • Social relationships being enacted. Politeness, degrees of formality and relative status of participants.
  482. Transactional Talk
    Interchange between at least two people with purpose of achieving a goal
  483. Vocal Effects
    Sounds - sighing, yawning, huffing, laughing and humming
  484. Determiner
    One of a small group of words - a word class - that preceded and premodifies a noun and creates a noun phrase
  485. Ephemeral
    A term that means LASTING FOR A SHORT TIME. In the study of language changem it refers to fashionable words that drift in and out of fashion. Speech is often considered to be an ephemeral thing in contrast to the more permanent nature of writing.
  486. Ideology (English)
    Refers to the values and attitudes we all share towards such things as ourselves, others and institutions. Are general or cultural ways of thinking that form the foundation of the many important BELIEF SYSTEMS that are adhered to by groups or whole societies.
  487. Idiomatic Language
    Refers to many words or phrases that are a familiar and everyday feature of our language. Idioms are a part of the comfortable, conversational style of language we use daily, but to a foreigner, idioms are difficult to understand because their meaning is very different from the literal meaning of the words.
  488. Intensifiers
    Are a special kind of adverb. An intensifier is used when the semantic value of another adverb or adjective needs to be altered. E.g. Quite, absolutely, extremely
  489. Latinate
    Refers to the many rather formal words in English that derive from either Latin or French.
  490. Lexeme
    Is a word in its most basic form.
  491. Linguistic
    Referring to the study or ways of language and the use of words to create meaning.
  492. Ballad
    The ballad is a traditional form of poetry, which now takes many forms. The ballad develops a dramatic story.
  493. Elegy
    The elegy is a poem written to mourn the death of a person. Something which resembles this style is called elegaic.
  494. Lyric
    A lyric or lyrical poem is a short poem which explores or expresses a state of feeling rather than narrates an event. The phrase lyric suggests that the lines could be set to music, as with lyrics of a song, but is not necessarily the case.
  495. Blank verse
    Poetry that is written in unrhymed iambic pentameter. Shakespeare wrote most of his plays in blank verse.
  496. Canzone
    A medieval italian lyric poem, with 5 or 6 stanzas and a shorter concluding stanza.
  497. Carpe Diem
    A Latin expression that means SEIZE THE DAY. Carpe Diem poems urge the reader to live for today and enjoy the pleasurs of the moment.
  498. Chanson de geste
    An epic poem of the 11th to the 14th century, written in Old French, which details the exploits of a historical or legendary figure.
  499. Classicism
    The principles and ideals of beauty that are characteristic of Greek and Roman art, architecture and literature.
  500. Dactyl
    • A metrical foot of 3 syllables, one long followed by 2 short.
    • E.g. Happily
  501. Envoy
    The shorter final stanza of a poem, as in a ballade.
  502. Epic
    A long, serious poem that tells the story of a heroic figure.
  503. Epigram
    A very short, witty poem.
  504. Epithalamium
    A poem in honour of a bride and groom.
  505. Feminine Rhyme
    • A rhyme that occurs in a final unstressed syllable.
    • E.g. Pleasure
    • Longing
  506. Haiku
    A Japanese poem composed of three unrhymed lines of 5, 7 and 5 syllables. Haiku often reflect on some aspect of nature.
  507. Heroic couplet
    A stanza composed of two rhymed lines in iambic pentameter.
  508. Hexameter
    A line of poetry that has six metrical feet.
  509. Foot
    Two or more syllables that together make up the smallest unit of rhythm in a poem.
  510. Iamb
    A metrical foot of two syllables, one short and one long.
  511. Idyll
    Either a short poem depicting peaceful, idealized country scene or a long poem that tells a story about heroic deeds or extraordinary events set in the distant past.
  512. Lay
    A long, narrative poem, especially one that was sung by medieval minstrels called trouveres.
  513. Masculine rhyme
    A rhyme that occurs in a final stressed syllable.
  514. Ottava Rima
    A type of poem consisting of 10 or 11 syllable lines arranged in 8 line OCTAVES with the rhyme scheme ABABABCC
  515. Pastoral
    A poem that depicts rural life in a peaceful and idealised way.
  516. Refrain
    A line or group of lines that is repeated throughout the poem, usually after every stanza.
  517. Rhyme Royal
    A type of poetry that consists of stanzas of seven lines in iambic oentameter with the rhyme scheme ABABBCC
  518. Scansion
    The analysis of a poems meter. This is usually done by marking the stressed and unstressed syllables in each line and then, based on the pattern of the stresses, dividing the line into feet.
  519. Senryu
    A short Japanese poem that is similar to a haiku in structure but treats human beings rather than nature, often in a humourous way.
  520. Spondee
    A metrical foot of two syllables, both of which are stressed.
  521. Tanka
    A Japanese poem of five lines, the first and third composed of five syllables and the rest of seven.
  522. Terza Rima
    A type of poetry consisting of 10 or 11 syllable lines in three line TERCETS with the rhyme scheme ABA BCB CDC etc.
  523. Trochee
    A metrical foot of two syllables, one long and one short.
  524. Trope
    A figure of speech, such as a metaphor in which words are not used in their literal form but in a figurative way.
  525. Complex Sentence
    A sentence containging a subordinate clause, a part of the sentence which can be taken out and it still make sense. Just gives extra information.
  526. Conditionals
    • The conditional mood of a verb.
    • E.g. If I should die (SHOULD)
  527. Contractions
    • The shortening or abbreviating of a word
    • E.g. Shouldn't (Should not)
    • Pushing words together
  528. Dependent Clause
    A clause which cannot stand by itself and depends on the rest of the sentence for it to make sense.
  529. Embedded Clause
    A clause which is placed internally into another sentence or clause.
  530. Emphasis
    Stress given to a word or phrase which is of special importance. Highlights it further.
  531. Fricative
    A type of consonant made by the friction of breath in a narrow opening, producing air flow.
  532. Genre Conventions
    • Traditional characteristics which you may expect from a certain type of genre
    • E.g. Newspaper - columns, headings, subheadings, pictures, captions etc
  533. Guttural
    Of a speech sound, produced in the throat. Harsh sounding.
  534. Lexical Field
    Is a set of words grouped by meaning referring to a specific subject.
  535. Main Clause
    A clause that can form a complete sentence standing alone, having a subject and a predicate.
  536. Objective
    Not influenced by personal feelings or opinions in considering and representing facts.
  537. Perspective
    A particular attitude towards or way of regarding something. A point of view.
  538. Plosive
    Denoting a consonant that is produced by stopping the airflow using the lips, followed by a sudden release of air.
  539. Relative Pronoun
    A pronoun that introduces a relative clause referring to some antecedent.
  540. Rhyme Scheme
    The ordered pattern of rhymes at the ends of the lines of a poem or a verse.
  541. Sibilance
    A consonant characterised by a hissing sound (s or sh)
  542. Subjective
    Based on or influenced by personal feelings, tastes or opinions.
  543. Subordinate Clause
    A clause that is dependent on the main clause for it to make sense.
  544. Symbol
    A thing that represents or stands for something else, especially a material object representing something abstract.
  545. Objective
    If a piece if written objectively, it is written from a balanced point of view, presenting the reader with both sides of the argument. It is unbiased