Some more English key terms from A2

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Author:
Marie_Andrews
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300344
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Some more English key terms from A2
Updated:
2015-04-09 10:17:42
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bramble1997
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English
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Hello.
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    • author "me"
    • tags "Bramble1997"
    • description ""
    • fileName "English key words - flashcards"
    • freezingBlueDBID -1.0
    • Context
    • Clarifies the meaning of something, either through historical information or by providing further detail before and/or after it
  1. Conversational speech
    Characteristic of informal spoken language or conversation
  2. Dialect
    Form of a language spoken in a particular area or by members of a particular social class or occupational group, distinguished by its vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation
  3. Diction
    The choice and use of words in speech or writing
  4. Digression
    An act or instance of changing from a main subject in speech to another unnconnected subject
  5. Everyday/familiar/modern references
    To mention something that the audience will recognise (can be an object or a common phrase) to create rapport/humour (when done out of context can increase the humour)
  6. Fillers/hedges (natural speech marker)
    Sounds or words that are spoken to fill up gaps in utterances
  7. Idiolect
    A persons individual speech habits
  8. Idiom
    A group of words whose meaning is different from the meaning of the individual words
  9. Impact
    The power of making a strong, immediate impression
  10. Interrupt
    To stop a person while s/he is saying or doing something, especially by saying something
  11. Intonation
    The sound pattern of phrases and sentences produced by pitch variation in the voice
  12. Lexis
    The full vocabulary of a language, or of a group, individual, field of study
  13. Non verbal signs
    The process of communication through sending and receiving wordless messages
  14. Pace/timing
    The process or art of regulating actions of remarks in relation to others to produce the best effect
  15. Rapport
    Relationship, usually a harminous one, established between a speaker and their audience
  16. Register
    Level of formality in speech with others; register depends on the situation, location, topic discussed and other factors
  17. Rhetorical device
    A technique that a speaker (or author) uses to evoke an emotional response in the audience
  18. Spontaneous speech
    Unprepared speech, in opposition to prepared speech where utterances contain well formed sentences close to those that can be found in written documents
  19. Tag question
    A question added to a declarative sentence, usually at the end, to engage the listerner, verify that something has been understood, or confirm that an action has occurred
  20. Transcript
    A written copy of a discussion or speech
  21. Discourse marker
    Help to organise the text and in spoken language can assert speaker power (Now/then/firstly)
  22. Adjacency pairs
    • Questions and answers
    • Statement and answer
  23. Phatic talk
    Polite talk to show social awareness, e.g. discussing the weather at a bus stop or a polite "How are you" to a colleague
  24. Echo Question
    • When a question echoes the statement
    • (I like Michael Buble
    • Oh, so you like Michael Buble?)
  25. Topic shift
    Changing to unrelated topics (start talking about cars then move on to plans of the weekend)
  26. Topic drift
    Changing to a related topic (started talking about cars then move to formula 1)
  27. Topic loop
    One topic of discussion keeps reoccurring throughout the conversation
  28. Speaker status
    Speaker which is dominant and is asserting power
  29. Symmetrical Mode of address
    • When speakers assert the same mode of address
    • (Good Morning Mr Smith
    • Morning Mr Jones)
  30. Asymmetrical mode of address
    • When one speaker has greater status over the other
    • (Good morning Mr Smith
    • Morning love)
  31. Non-fluency
    A feature that disrupts fluency such as filler, hedges and pauses
  32. Latch on
    One participant begins speaking directly after the other one has finished
  33. Agenda
    One speakers choice of topics is followed
  34. Repair
    Speaker corrects error showing a feature of spontaneous speech
  35. Back channelling
    A way of showing speaker support
  36. Monitoring device
    A feature to gain support and/or sympathy (y"know)
  37. Transactional conversation
    When there is a distinct outcome of the talk
  38. Interactional conversation
    Talk which cements social relationships
  39. Prescriptisvism
    Belief that one type of language is acceptable - judgemental
  40. Descriptivism
    Belief that all types of language are acceptable - non judgemental
  41. Expletive taboo
    Swearing to express emtoion, not directed towards others
  42. Abusive taboo
    Swearing towards another person; derogatory - to offend
  43. Humorous taboo
    Swearing towards another person teasing - can convey a close relationship
  44. Auxiliary taboo
    Swearing attached to something other than a person - its bloody raining
  45. Semantic field
    Group of words which are related in meaning
  46. Cohesion
    When lexis in a text creates a chain of meanings thoughout a text
  47. Common nouns
    Classify things into types of general categories e.g. dog, flower, aeroplane
  48. Count nouns
    • Name for things which can be counted. Have a plural form
    • E.g. teabag, girl, child
  49. Non-count nouns
    • Name for things which cannot be counted
    • E.g. bread, water
  50. Hallidays Taxonomy
    • Instrumental - to get things done
    • Regulatory - to influence or control the actions of others
    • Interactional - social language to sustain relationships
    • Personal - to express yourself or opinions
    • Heuristic - to find out information
    • Imaginative - to exercise your imagination
    • Representational - the pass on information
  51. Grice's Maxims
    • Quantity - offering neither too much or too little
    • Relevance - a contribution that related to the conversation
    • Manner - a clear and intelligible contribution
    • Quality - we will tend to say things that are true

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