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    • author "me"
    • tags "Bramble1997"
    • description "Not done"
    • fileName "Geography - Cities and urbanisation key words - Contemporary case studies"
    • freezingBlueDBID -1.0
    • Affordable homes
    • Housing made accessible to poorer and new households. It mainly comprises social housing made available at relatively low rents, and low-cost housing for sale to owner-occupiers through low-interest mortgages.
  1. Anchor development
    A key activity, such as a department store, that is likely to attract other shops and therefore helps to gurantee the success of a new shopping mall.
  2. Bottom up
    Where a local community initiates a particular development
  3. Brown agenda
    Part of the international drive to make cities and urbanisation more sustainable. It is mainly concerned with the living environment and quality of life of slum dwellers
  4. Brownsfield
    Land that has been previously used, abandoned and now awaits new use
  5. Central Business district (CBD)
    The commercial centre of a town or city
  6. Centralisation
    The tendency for people and economic activities to become concentrated at specific points
  7. Centrifugal
    The outward movement of people and activities
  8. Centripetal
    The inward movement of people and activities
  9. Cloning
    A process whereby places lose their individuality and become more alike
  10. Comparative advantage
    The ability to produce something at a lower cost than competitors, largely through specialisation
  11. Consolidation
    The upgrading of shanty towns and squatter settlements and their official integration into the built up area of a town or city
  12. Conurbation
    A continuous urban area formed by the growing together of once separate towns or cities
  13. Counterurbanisation
    The movement of people and employment from major cities to smaller settlements and rural areas located just beyond the city, or to more distant, smaller cities and towns
  14. Decentralisation
    The outward movement of people and economic activities from established centres
  15. Deindustrialisation
    The absolute or relative decline in the importance of manufacturing in the economy, particularly in MEDC cities
  16. Deprivation
    When an individuals wellbeing falls below a level generally regarded as a reasonable minimum. Measuring deprivation usually relies on indicators relating to employment, housing, health and education.
  17. Development
    The increased use of resources and technology that leads to a rise in the standard of living of a country.
  18. Development groups
    World Bank (2005) classification of countries based on per capita gross national income (GNI). Four groups are recognised: low income (US$735 or less); lower-middle income (US$736-2935); upper-middle income (US$2936-9075); and high income (US$9076 or more)
  19. Downtown
    A North American term for the central business district
  20. Ecological footprint
    The impact people have on the environment; principally through the consumption of resources and the disposal of waste
  21. Economic globalisation
    The process whereby the economies of the world are moving closer together and becoming integrated
  22. Edge City
    The result of urban processes, leading to parts of the suburbs becoming more city-like through the agglomeration of offices, factories and large shopping complexes
  23. Exclusion
    The shutting out of particular groups of people (e.g. the poor, ethnic minorities) from full participation in society or from particular areas
  24. Filtering
    The process by which ageing housing becomes occupied by lower and poorer groups in the social hierarchy as the upwardly mobile move out
  25. Flagship development
    A large prestigious scheme, often designed to kick-start the development or improvement of a larger area
  26. Gated community
    An area of wealthy private housing with a secure perimeter wall or fence with controlled entrances for residents, visitors and their cars
  27. Gentrification
    The movement of middle class people back into run down, inner-city areas, resulting in an improvement of the housing stock and image
  28. Ghetto
    A residential area that is largely occupied by one ethnic or cultural minority group
  29. Global city
    One of the worlds leading cities - a major node in the complex economic networks being produced by globalisation. The influence of global cities (e.g. London, New York, Tokyo) is linked to their provision of financial and producer services
  30. Greenfield
    Land that has not been subject to any urban development
  31. Gross domestic product (GDP)
    The total value of goods and services produced by a country in 1 year but excluding net income from abroad
  32. Gross national income (GNI)
    Previously known as gross national product - the total value of goods and services produced by a country in 1 year, including net income (interest, dividends etc)from other countries. Usually expressed in per capita terms
  33. Heritage
    Any feature (natural or manmade) inherited from the past
  34. Image
    The perceived reputation and appearance of a town or city
  35. Informal economy
    Made up of employments that are not officialy recognised. They are commonly found in LEDCs where people have to find work for themselves, often illegally, on the streets and in small workshops
  36. Infrastructure
    The amenities and services basic to daily life. They include water supply, sewage disposal, schools, healthcare and roads
  37. Inward investment
    Injections of capital made by foreign companies in order to extend their business interests and profits
  38. Least Developed countries (LDC)
    One of the poorest countries in the world - where per capita GNI is less than US$750 per annum
  39. Less economically developed country (LEDC)
    A relatively poor countrt in the early stages of development. The term is currently applied to most countries in Africa, Asia (excluding Japan), Latin America, the Caribbean and the regions of Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia
  40. Mega-city
    A city or urban agglomeration with a population of 10 million or more residents
  41. Megalopolis
    A vast urban tract formed by the merging of conurbations and cities
  42. Metropolitan area
    A large population concentration that typically includes an important city as well as the administrative area bordering the city that are economically and socially integrated with it
  43. Millionaire city
    A city with a population of 1 million or more people
  44. More economically developed country (MEDC)
    A relatively wealthy country in the later stages of development. The term includes all the countries in Europe and North America, along with Australia, New Zealand and Japan
  45. Newly industrialising country (NIC)
    A country that has recently undergone rapid development and is making the transition from LEDC to MEDC
  46. Pathway
    A course or sequence of stages broadly followed by most countries as they progress in terms of development or urbanisation
  47. Polarisation
    A widening of the gap between extremes; e.g. between rich and poor
  48. Post-industrial
    A term used to describe a set of changes and processes at work since the 1970s that have transformed cities, economies ans societies. The process involves a shift of emphasis from manufacturing to services
  49. Primacy
    Where one city (usually a capital city) dominates completely the national urban hierarchy. It is significantly larger and more powerful than the second-ranking city
  50. Quality of life
    The general state of condition of a population living in a given area
  51. Redevelopment
    The demolition of old buildings to make way for new ones
  52. Regeneration
    The rivival of old, urban areas by redevelopment or improvement
  53. Reimaging
    Changing the perceived image of an area by minimising the negative aspects and promoting the positives
  54. Reurbanisation
    The movement of people and economic activities back into city centres
  55. Rural dilution
    The infiltration or urban lifestyles into rural areas
  56. Rural-urban continuum
    The unbroken transition from predominantly rural to predominantly urban
  57. Shanty town
    An area of slum housing built of salvaged materials and located either at the city margins or within the city or hazardous ground hitherto avoided by the built up area
  58. Sink estate
    An area of poor housing occupied by disadvantaged households
  59. Slum
    An area of overcrowded, squalid housing and inadequate services occupied by poor households
  60. Social housing
    Housing for poorer families, usually provided by local authorities and rented by tenants
  61. Social malaise
    The incidence of social problems such as crime, anti-social behaviour and ill health
  62. Social segregation
    Where particular groups of people live apart, either because they are forced to do so, or for economic or social reasons. Segregation if often based on wealth, ethnicity or age
  63. Suburb
    The built-up outer or peripheral parts of a town or city
  64. Suburban intensification
    The process whereby suburbs become more urban as a result of increasing building densities, introducing non-residential activities and developing remaining greenfield sites
  65. Suburbanisation
    The outward spread of the built-up area, often at lower densities compared with the older parts of the town or city. The decentralisation - of people first and then employment and services - is encouraged by transport improvements. The process is also encouraged by in-migrants settling around the urban fringe
  66. Sustainability
    Meeting the needs of people today without reducing the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Minimising the ecological footprint
  67. Top down
    Where national polciies and decisions are handed down for local authorities to implement
  68. Transnational corporation (TNC)
    A large company operating in more than one country and typically involved in a range of economic activities
  69. Urban
    Countries differ in the war they define this term. Some define it as community or settlement with a population of 2000 or more, but there is more to the term than just population size. It is more correct to define it as relating to, or characteristic, of towns or cities, with their distinctive environments and ways of life
  70. Urban agglomeration
    A contiguous urban area of 1 million people or more
  71. Urban environment
    A built up area of a town or city, together with the prevailing lifestyles, values and aspirations
  72. Urban fringe
    The edge of a built up area
  73. Urban hierarchy
    The vertical classification of towns and cities according to a variable such as population size. This is best thought of as a pyramid structure, with many towns as the base. ABove these is a smaller number of cities, and above these, an even smaller number of regional centres. At the top of the pyramid there is a capital city
  74. Urbanisation
    The growth in the proportion of a population living in urban areas
  75. Urbanism
    The lifestyles, values, attitudes and behaviour that characterise people who live in towns and cities
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2015-04-09 14:21:30
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