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2015-04-09 10:23:14
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    • author "me"
    • tags "Bramble1997"
    • description ""
    • fileName "Geography A2 keywords - World Cities - Oxford textbook"
    • freezingBlueDBID -1.0
    • Agglomeration
    • A city which has grown so large that it merges with others to form a city region, e.g. Tokyo, whose region now includes Yokohama
  1. CBD
    Central Business Direct or city centre
  2. Community-focused regeneration
    Where regeneration focuses on the needs of the communities, e.g. housing and schools
  3. Conurbation
    The growth of a city that it engulfs other towns or cities, to form a continuous urban area
  4. Core and Periphery
    A theory that shows how different economic development between regions leads to a prosperous "core" region and a poorer "periphery"
  5. Counter-urbanisation
    The processes that lead to people moving away from cities, which in net terms may lead to a decrease in a citys population
  6. De-centralisation
    The processes by which the retailing industry in cities moves to more spacious out of town locations
  7. De-industrialisation
    The decline of industry
  8. Donut city
    A term used in the USA to describe cities where de-population of the inner core and movement of businesses away from the city centre has left behind a "hole" or inactive city centre
  9. Dormitory settlements
    Suburban communities in which people sleep between workdays; with lower populations by day than by night
  10. Edge cities
    A term used in the USA to descrive suburban growth away from major cities which take on the same functions of cities as more and more people and businesses move out
  11. Ethnic enclaves
    Communities of people from similar cultural or ethnic backgrounds, e.g. nationality or religion
  12. Gentrification
    The improvement of urban areas by individual property owners, which usually leads to increased commercial activity in local retail areas
  13. Growth poles
    Centres of economic growth around which further growth occurs
  14. Hyper-urbanisation
    Where a citys growth greatly exceeds its ability to cope in terms of housing, employment or services
  15. Information employment
    Unofficial employment, unregistered for tax; it is usually irregular with little security, e.g. street trading
  16. Infrastructure
    The structures and services that allow places to function effectively, e.g. transport, water, etc
  17. Market - or property-led regeneration
    Regeneration led by property developers and financiers with little input from government except the creation of opportunities or tax breaks
  18. Mega-city
    A US term for any city over 10 million people
  19. Megalopolis
    A huge urban area, used in the USA to describe areas such as or larger than mega-cities
  20. Metropolitan area
    The administrative urban area of a city
  21. Millionaire city
    A city with over 1 million people
  22. Multiplier effect
    An upward spiral of development, so that one economic activity leads to the development of others
  23. New economy
    Also known as the "knowledge economy" which is based on creativity and specialised expertise in finance, media and management, rather than manufacturing goods
  24. Out-of-town shopping centres
    Major retail centres built away from city centres (as opposed to retail parks which are retail outlets found in smaller towns or suburbs)
  25. Post-industrial economy
    Economic development which focuses upon services and the knowledge economy, rather than manufacturing
  26. Re-branding
    Ways in which regeneration deliberately aims to improve perceptions of an areas status or reputation
  27. Regeneration
    The process of urban or rual improvement, which may be economuc, social or environmental in nature
  28. Retail-led regeneration
    Regeneration brought by improvements in retail space designed to attract shoppers
  29. Re-urbanisation
    The processes by which urban population increase following a period of decline
  30. Rural-urban migration
    The movement of people from rural to urban areas
  31. Shanty town or favela
    Any informal settlement oon spare land which may be legal or illegal
  32. Social segregation
    The way in which suburbs of different income and social status emerge apart from each other
  33. Sports-led regeneration
    Regeneration which focuses on the benefits brought by sports events
  34. Squatters
    Illegal occupants of property
  35. Suburbanisation
    The growth of suburbs
  36. Urban
    Describing a town or city
  37. Urban region
    The area over which a city exerts influence within its country, which is larger than its metropolitan area, e.g. the influence of the London region over south-east England
  38. Urban smog
    A mix of naturally occurring fog and air pollution or smoke in urban areas; may cause health problems such as asthma
  39. Urbanisation
    The increasing percentage of people living in urban areas
  40. World city
    A city which plays a disproportionately important role in the global economic system, e.g. global finance and trade
  41. Outsourcing
    Is the employment of people overseas to do jobs previously done by people in the home country