A2+History+-+key+figures+-+thin+textbook (1).txt

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    • Clement Attlee
    • Attlee (1883-1967) became Labour leader in 1935 and led the party for 20 years. He played a key role as deputy prime minister in Churchills wartime coalition government from 1940 to 1945. He was then prime minister from 1945 to 1951 leading Labours first ever majority government and introducing the welfare state. He retired after the general election of 1955. Although he was often underrated during his lifetime, Attlees reputation rose steadily afterwards.
  1. Winston Churchill
    Churchill (1874-1965) had already had a long and controversial career by 1951. On many occasions, between 1906 and 1941, he was cabinet minister in both Liberal and Conservative governments. He became prime minister at the age of 65 in the war crisis of May 1940 and led Britain to victory by 1945. After the war, he continued to play the role of world statesman even though the Conservatives were in opposition. He was prime minister again from 1951 to 1955; his final mark on British politics was his impressive state funeral in 1965.
  2. Anthony Eden
    Eden (1897-1977) was a talented politician who had always been thought of as a future prime minister. He was a rising politician star in the 1930s and played a key role in the Second World War as Winston Churchills foreign secretary. On several occasions between 1951 and 1955, he was acting prime minister. He became prime minister in 1955 but was forced to resign in January 1957 after the Suez crisis.
  3. R.A. Butler
    Rab Butler (1902-1982) was famous as "the best prime minister the Conservatives never had". He came to prominence as architect of the 1944 Education Act and played a key role in helping the reorganisation of the party and its policies in preparation for returning to power in 1951. He was chancellorr from 1951 to 1955 and seen as a possible leader of the party both in 1957 after the fall of Eden and again in 1963 when Macmillan resigned.
  4. Harold Macmillan
    Harold Macmillan (1894-1986) was MP for Stockton-on-Tees and was Churchills military liaison officer during the Second World War. He was a very successful housing minister in Churchills government from 1951, achieving the ambitious target of 300,000 houses per year. He was foreign secretary in the Eden government. In 1957, he emerged as the new Conservative prime minister after Edens resignation.
  5. Hugh Gaitskell
    Gaitskell (1906-1963) was chancellor in Clement Attlees government in 1951. It was his decision to introduce prescription charges, partly to fund the Korean War, that led to the resignation of Nye Bevan and the start of a long-running party split. The conflict between Gaitskellites and Bevanites was to prove a serious problem for Labour throughout Gaitskells time as leader from 1955 to 1963. These divisions were made worse by rows over nuclear disarmament. Gaitskell struggled to make an impression against the Prime Minister, Harold Macmillan, but might well have led Labour to eventual victory but for his sudden death in 1963.
  6. Aneurin Bevan
    Nye Bevan (1897-1960) had been minister of health in the Attlee government and was the architect of the NHS. He was a charismatic public speaker and a hero to the Labour left. He was also a hate figure to Conservatives (he called them "lower than vermin" in a 1948 speech), to sections of the national press and to many in his own party. When Bevan resigned from the government in 1951 to protest against the introduction of prescription charges, he gained the support of many Labour MPs and trade unionists but became a political enemy of Hugh Gaitskell, the chancellor who had pushed through prescription charges.
  7. Frank Cousins
    Frank Cousins (1927-1992) became leader of the TGWU in 1956. In 1958, he led an unsuccessful bus strike against the Macmillan government. In the Labour party conference in October 1960, Cousins bitterly opposed Gaitskells leadership of the Labour movement, specifically over nuclear weapons. Gaitskell later re-established some control and Labour did not become a unilateralist party but Cousins had led the unions into taking left wing positions hostile to the party leadership. These divisions carried on into the 1970s and 1980s.
  8. Reginald Maudling
    Maudling (1917-1979) was a liberal Conservative who had cabinet experience since 1959, at the board of trade and as colonial secretary, before becoming chancellor of the exchequer under Macmillan and Douglas-Home. He was considered a possible future party leader (Harold Wilson claimed he was the only candidate he was afraid of) but missed out in the leadership struggle of 1963 and again when Edward Heath became leader in 1965. He was later home secretary from 1970 to 1972 before his career was ended by a financial scandal.
  9. Sir Alec Douglas-Home
    Lord Home (1903-1995) was a Scottish aristocrat who had a long career as a diplomat, closely associated with the policy of appeasement in the 1930s. He was very reluctant to run for the Conservative leadership and had to be persuaded it was his duty. In the social climate of 1963 he was an easy target for the satirists in Private Eye and on That Was The Week That Was but it is often forgotten that he nearly led the Conservatives to victory in the close run election of 1964
  10. Anthony Crosland
    Crosland (1918-1977) was the leading social democrat thinker in the Labour Party, with little enthusiasm for old-style Marxism. He was a keen supporter of comprehensive schools. He became education secretary after Labour won the 1964 election. In 1965, Crosland issued Circular 10/65, ordering local authorities to draw up plans switching to a comprehensive system.
  11. Mrs Mary Whitehouse
    Mrs Whitehouse (1910-2001) was a Birmingham housewife. In 1963, she began her own "moral crusade" against what she saw as a "tide of immorality and indecency" in Britain at that time, her crusade was directed in particular at the director-general of the BBC, Sir Hugh Greene. Mrs Whitehouse gained a lot of public support when she launched her Clean Up TV campaign in 1964. In 1965, she founded the National Viewers and Listeners Association.
  12. Iain Macleod
    Iain Macleod (1913-1970) was a "One Nation Tory". He was a minister of health under Eden and was a key member of Macmillans cabinet, first as minister of labour and then as colonial secretary. He was considered a possible candidate for the party leadership in 1963. He resigned from the government when Sir Alec Douglas-Home became prime-minister.
  13. Charles de Gaulle
    De Gaulle (1894-1970) came to fame as leader of the Free french forces who fought on after France surrendered in 1940. He had many rows with his main allies, Winston Churchill and Franklin Roosevelt, and remained suspicious of "les Anglo-Saxons", especially the Americans, in his later career. He led France through the transition from dictatorship to democracy after the liberation of France in 1944 but then suddenly retired in 1946. He remained in the political wilderness until 1958, when he returned as president under a new constitution.
  14. Roy Jenkins
    Jenkins (1920-2003) was from the right wing of the Labour Party. Many people thought he was more of a liberal than a socialist. He was also an accomplished historican whose books included biographies of W.E. Gladstone and Winston Churchill. He played a leading role in the Wilson government from 1964, first as home secretary and then as chancellor. Jenkins was vert pro-European and resigned from Labours shadow cabinet in 1972 after clashing with Wilson over the EEC. In 1981, Jenkins was one of the founders of the Social Democratic Party.
  15. George Brown
    George Brown (1914-1985) was deputy leader of the LAbour Party from 1960 to 1970. He lost 88-115 to Harold Wilson in the race to succeed Gaitskell as leader in 1963. Brown had strong support from the trade unions, but many people in the party regarded his as too unpredictable. He had a serious drink problem and frequently clashed with his cabinet colleagues. He was strongly pro-Europe. From 1964, he was in charge of the DEA and Labours National Plan for the economy but he was moved to the foreign office in 1966. He resigned from the cabinet in 1968 after a blazing row with Wilson.
  16. James Callaghan
    "Sunny Jim" Callaghan (1912-2005) was a natural conciliator. He entered parliament as MP for Cardiff in 1945. Harold Wilson appointed him chancellor in 1964; later on, he served as both foreign secretary and home secretary, becoming one of the few men to have held the three top cabinet posts. Associated with the centre-right of the party but with excellent links to the union bosses, Callaghan was the obvious choice to succeed Wilson as prime minister in 1976.
  17. Margaret Thatcher
    Margaret Hilda Roberts (1925-2013) from Grantham in Lincolnshire married a wealthy businessman, Denis Thatcher. She became MO for Finchley in 1959. She gained her first cabinet post in 1970, as education secretary in Edward Heaths government. In 1975, she emerged as the surprise candidate challenging Heath for the party leadership. She became prime minister after the 1979 general election and dominated British politics for the next 11 years
  18. Sir Keith Joseph
    Joseph (1918-1994) was Conservative MP for Leeds North East from 1956 to 1987. He held posts in the cabinets of four prime ministers, between 1961 and 1986. He was a deep thinker on economic policy, with strong views on the need for free market policies. He was considered to be a candidate to rival Edward Heath in 1975 but eventually gave his support to Margaret Thatcher instead. He had much influence on her early policy decisions from 1979.
  19. Willie Whitelaw
    Whitelaw (1918-1999) was an old-style upperclass Conservative with centrist ideas similar to those of Harold Macmillan. He was appointed Northern Ireland Secretary in 1971 and was a highly effective negotiator in the talks over power-sharing at Sunningdale and afterwards. In December 1973, he was suddenly moved to the department of employment in an attempt to get a compromise solution to the miners' strike. In the 1980s, to the surprise of many observers, he became a loyal deputy prime minister to Mrs Thatcher.
  20. Michael Foot
    Michael Foot (1913-2010) was a popular and respected left-winger, a great admirer (and biographer) of Aneurin Bevan. He was a talented journalist, with a regular column in the Daily Herald. He was thought of as a radical, whose natural home was always on the back benches. His first experience of being in the government was as Wilsons minister of employment in 1974. He strongly supported CND and he was fervently opposed to Britain joining the EEC. He became leader of the Labour Party in 1980, after Labours defeat by Mrs Thatcher.
  21. Airey Neave
    Airey Neave (1916-1979) was a war hero, famous for escaping from the high security POW camp at Colditz Castle in 1942. He was on the right wing of the Conservative Party and a strong supporter of Ulster unionism. He was Mrs Thatchers campaign manager in her leadership bid in 1975 and became an influential adviser afterwards. He was murdered by an IRA car bomb in 1979.
  22. Denis Healey
    Healey (1917-) was from the right wing of the Labour Party. He made a good impression as defence secretary in Wilsons first government and became chancellor in 1974 when Labour came back to power. Healey was a talented politician but also very forceful, he often clashed with personalities on the Labour left. He lost to Michael Foot in the election for the party leadership after Callaghan resigned in 1980 and was elected deputy leader in 1981.
  23. Michael Heseltine
    Heseltine (1933-) was a millionaire who became a leading Conservative politician in the 1980s. Because of his long hair and flamboyant style, he was often known in the party as "Tarzan". His "One Nation" views brought him into conflict with Mrs Thatcher and he resigned from her cabinet in 1986 over the Westland affair. Many Thatcherites blamed him for the fall of Thatcher in 1990. He was later deputy prime minister to John Major.
  24. Sir Geoffrey Howe
    Howe (1926-) was a Conservaative MP with a legal background. He served as trade minister in heaths government to 1974 and was Mrs Thatcher's first chancellor of the exchequer from 1979 to 1983. He presided over the application of monetarist principles to economic policies, resulting in very high levels of unemployment. From 1983 to 1989, he was foreign minister but his views on Europe came into conflict with Thatcher's. His resignation speech in 1990 helped to cause her fall from power.
  25. Nigel Lawson
    Lawson (1932-) was a financial journalist and a committed thatcherite. He served in Margaret Thatcher's first term as Geoffrey Howe's number two at the treasury and replaced Howe as chancellow in 1983. His expansionary budgets of 1987 and 1988 are often called the "Lawson Boom". In 1989, Lawson resigned from the government, furious about the excessive influence wielded by Thatcher's private economic adviser, Professor Alan Walters.
  26. Tony Benn
    Tony Benn (1925-) was an idealistic voice on the left wing of the Labour Party. Originally Anthony Wedgwood Benn, Viscount Stansgate, he became plain Tony Benn after the 1963 Peerage Act. Benn was a minister in Harold Wilson's cabinet from 1964 but repeatedly came into conflict with the party leadership, especially during Wilson's second term from 1974. He was passionately against Britain being in the EEC. In the 1980s, there were bitter divisions between the "Bennite Left" and mainstream Labour moderates.
  27. Norman Tebbit
    Tebbit (1931-) was an outspoken Essex MP who was appointed trade secretary in Margaret Thatcher's first cabinet and later became party chairman. His down-to-earth and abrasive style made him very popular with the new Thatcher Conservatives. He was injured in the IRA bomb attack on the 1984 party conference (in which his wife was badly hurt). In 1987, he fell out with one of Margaret Thatcher's advisers, lord Young and left the government though he remained loyal to Thatcherite ideals.
  28. Ken Livingstone
    Livingstone (1945-) made his name as a left-wing activist on Lambeth Borough Council. In 1981, he became leader of the GLC after outing Sir Andrew MacIntosh. He remained leader until the GLC was abolished in 1986. He was the first elected mayor of London from 2001 to 2008. Livingstone was regarded as an unreliable maverick by the Labour Party leadership, who tried to block his election in 2001. After he proved popular and successful, he was allowed to rejoin the party in 2005.
  29. Arthur Scargill
    Scargill (1938-) was leader of the Yorkshire miners. His HQ at Barnsley was known as "Arthurs Castle". Scargill played a big part in the successful strikes of 1972 and 1974. In 1981, he succeeded the moderate Joe Gormley as president of the NUM. Scargil was ideologically committed to the use of industrial action for political purposes, not just to fight for improved pay and conditions. The coal strike of 1984 to 1985 resulted in major confrontations with the government and police; it also split the NUM. In 1993, Scargill founded a new party to promote "real socialism" but made little impact.
  30. Neil Kinnock
    Kinnock (1942-) was a left-wing Labour MP from South Wales. He succeeded Michael Foot as party leader in 1983. Kinnock changed his mind on key left-wing causes such as unilateralism, nationalisation and Europe. He strongly attacked the hard left and set out to move the Labour Party back towards the political middle ground. He also started the process of modernising the party organisations and improving party discipline, helped by Patricia Hewitt, Peter Mandelson and others. Kinnock led Labour to two election defeats in 1987 and 1992 but did much to restore Labour's political credibility.
  31. Gerry Adams
    Adams (1948-) became leader of Sinn Fein, the political wing of the IRA, in 1981. He was elected MP for West Belfast in 1983 but refused to attend the "English parliament" because this would entail swearing an oath of allegiance to the Queen. Adams was one of the architects of Sinn Feins twin-track strategy, using "the armalite and the ballot box". In the 1990s, he played a leading role in the IRA ceasefire and the peace process that led to the Good Friday Agreement.
  32. Rupert Murdoch
    Murdoch (1931-) was already famous before the rise of Sky satellite television in the 1990s. He had made a fortune in Australian and American newspapers when he started to build up his British newspaper empire in the 1980s. He took over The Sun and made it the fastest selling tabloid. He also bought The Times, the Sunday Times and the News of The World. The Murdoch press became very influential politically, mostly giving very strong support to Margaret Thatcher, not least against the unions. In the 1990s, support from the Murdoch press was crucial for the rise of New Labour.
  33. Lord Carrington
    Peter Carrington (1919-) was suave aristocrat and brilliant conciliator. His success over Rhodesia in 1980 did not only depend on persuading people like Smith and Mugabe into accepting a eal; it was also necessary to persuade Thatcher. There was a strong Rhodesia lobby in the Conservative Party opposed to black majority rule. As opposition leader to 1979, Margaret Thatcher had seemed sympathetic to their views.
  34. Pope John Paul II
    Karel Wojtyla (1920-2005), Archbishop of Cracow, was elected pope in 1979. John Paul II was a staunch anti-communist and his influence was greatly feared by the communist leaderships in Poland and the USSR. His official visit to Poland in 1980 drew enormous crowds and greatly strengthened the demands for reform from the Polish Solidarity movement.
  35. Mikhail Gorbachev
    Gorbachev (1931-) was the man who tried to reform the Soviet communist system in order to save it. He emerged as leader of the USSR in 1985 and from 1987 he promoted his key ideas of perestroika (restructuring and modernisation) and glasnost (openness). In trying to reform the USSR, Gorbachev was willing to end the Cold War and let the Soviet satellite states in east Central Europe go their own way. Gorbachev succeeded in ending the Cold War, but could not prevent the total collapse of communism.
  36. John Redwood
    John redwood (1951-), known to his detractors as "the Vulcan" was secretary for Wales in John Major's cabinet. Redwood was a brilliant economic theorist, strongly in favour of monetarism, who had been a policy adviser to Mrs Thatcher. He was also a leading Eurosceptic. In 1995, he ran against Major for the Conservative leadership. In 1997, Redwood surprisingly launched a joint leadership bid with the pro-European Ken Clarke, but the party opted for Willian Hague instead.
  37. Tony Blair
    Tony Blair (1953-) did not look or sound like a traditional Labour politician, Educated at a Scottish private school, Fettes College, Blair was much more of the Middle England he wanted to win over than he was of Labour loyalists. That explains why he placed so much emphasis on the label "New Labour". Blair had few hang ups about political ideology; what drove him was the desire to win power. To do this, he focused on policy, party discipline and political presentation. He was prime minister from 1997 until he stepped down in 2007.
  38. John Smith
    John Smith (1938-1994) was MP for Monlands East, a Labour stronghold in the west of Scotland. He was popular and respected at Westminister, with a political style that was calm and reassuring; he was a skilfull performer in parliament and on television. Smith became Labour leader in 1992, succeeding Neil Kinnock. Why Kinoocks Welshness should have been a political disadvantage while Smiths Scottishness proved to be an asset might seem puzzling but opinion polls showed this to be true. Smith might well have become prime minister but for his sudden death from a heart attack in 1994.
  39. Peter Mandelson
    Peter Medelson (1953-) became famous as the "Prince of Darkness", the clever spin doctor who was behind the slick presentation of New Labour. Mandelson was Neil Kinnocks director of communications from 1985 and masterminded Labour's election campaign in 1987. He entered parliament in 1992 and became a close adviser to Tony Blair. He was twice a cabinet minister but on each occasion had to resign after a scandal; as industry minister in 1998 and as Northern ireland secretary in 2001. He then left British politics to become an EU commissioner but made a sensational return to join Gordon Browns cabinet in 2008.
  40. Alastair Campbell
    Alastair Campbell (1957-) was Tony Blair's press secretary from 1994 to 2003. He had worked as a journalist for several newspapers including including the Daily Mirror. Campbell had great success in improving Labours press coverage through well-organised briefing to journalists. He was particularly effective in rebutting hostile news stories as soon as they appeared.
  41. Gordon Brown
    Gordon Brown (1951-) was elected MP for Dunfermline in 1983 and was a protege of John Smith. He was considered a strong candidate for the party leadership before he made a deal with Tony Blair in 1994. He had a key role in election planning in 1997. After Labour came to power, he was chancellor of the exchequer for ten years, longer than any other chancellor in modern times. His relationship with Blair was often tense but they made a powerful and effective team. Brown succeeded Blair as prime minister in 2007.
  42. William Hague
    Hague (1961-) was first noticed at the age of 16, making an assured speech at the 1981 Conservative Party conference. He became a popular and effective MP for Richmond, known for his Eurosceptic views and for his skill as a debater. As party leader, Hague attempted, at least at first, to make Conservative policies more socially inclusive. He was not able to carry this through, howeverm because right-wingers were obsessed with ifighting and with promoting policies that had already proved unpopular with voters.
  43. Iain Duncan Smith
    Duncan Smith (1954-) came from a military background, educated at HMS Conway and the army college at Sandhurst. He was one of the original Maastricht rebels against john major. He won in 2001 because of negative voting against Clarke and Portillo, not because of any belief in his ability to lead the Conservatives back into power. Duncan Smith had little charisma and made little impact in the opinion polls. Within a few months of his emergence as leader, Conservative MPs were plotting to get rid of him. In 2003, Duncan Smith was ousted and Michael Howard was installed as leader, unopposed.
  44. Michael Howard
    Howard (1941-) was an experienced and able politician but had become something of a hate figure as an extremely unpopular home secretary in the 1990s. In 1997, he had come last in the race to succeed John Major. As leader, Howard performed strongly against Tony Blair in the Commons and improved party organisation and morale. The party that Howard led, however, was still obsessed with Europe and went down to defeat again in 2005.
  45. David Cameron
    David Cameron (1966-) came from a wealthy background and was educated at Eton and Oxford. His early career was in public relations; he was a policy adviser to Norman Lamont at the time of Black Wednesday in 1992 and later to Michael howard. Cameron was elected MP for Witney in 2001, only four years before he became party leader. He played a key role in drafting the Conservative election manifesto in 2005.
  46. Douglas Hurd
    In 1991 Hurd (1930-) became foreign secretary, a job for which he seemed perfectly suited, in John Majors government, He was an experienced Conservative politician from the pro-Europe wing of the party, loyal to Mrs Thatcher in many respects but very different in his approach to Britains role in Europe. He was closely involved with European attempts to mediate in the Balkan conflicts between 1992 and 1995 but these efforts met with little success as Slobodan Milosevic consistently went back on the agreements reached after lengthy negotiations.
  47. Saddam Hussein
    Saddam (1937-2006) was a member of the Ba'ath Party, based on revolutionary socialism and pan-Arab nationalism, which seized power in Iraq in 1968. From 1979, Saddam ruled as a dictator. His regime crushed opposition within Iraq and built up a large army. Saddam repeatedly clashed with the West. He nationalised the western-owned Iraq Petroleum Company, fought a long war against Iran in the 1980s and invaded Kuwait in 1990,/provoking the First Gulf War. He was overthrown in April 2003 during the Second Gulf War. He was executed by the new government of Iraq in 2006.
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A2+History+-+key+figures+-+thin+textbook (1).txt
2015-04-09 14:30:05
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