History+Key+terms+-+Britain+-+Thin+textbook+-+back+and+throughout.txt

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History+Key+terms+-+Britain+-+Thin+textbook+-+back+and+throughout.txt
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    • fileName "History Key terms - Britain - Thin textbook - back and throughout"
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    • One Nation Tories
    • The reformist policy agenda of Conservative ministers like Harold Macmillan and R.A. Butler had many similarities with the policies of Labour thinkers like Anthony Crosland and Hugh Gaitskell. In 1954, The Spectator coined the word "Butskellism" as a label for these similarities. Not until the mid 1970s would a real ideology gulf between the parties open wide.
  1. EEC
    The European Economic Community, an economic union, often known as the Common Market, first established by the Treaty of Rome in 1957. Its six founder members were France, Germany, Italy and the "Benelux" countries - Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg. The EEC became the European Union in 1992.
  2. Productivity
    Efficiency, i.e. getting more produced per worker, per shift, per hourly wage. In this way, costs are reduced, profits are increased and workers are freed up for other uses.
  3. Competitiveness
    The ability to match rival producers in terms of the price and quality of goods and the costs of making them.
  4. Welfare State
    The name commonly used to sum up the reforms carried through by the Labour government after 1945, including the National Health Service and the system of social insurance. Critics of the welfare state often use the term "welfarism" to define what they consider to be an unhealthy dependence on help provided by the state.
  5. Nationalisation
    State ownership of key industries. The demand for the state to control "the commanding heights of the economy" had been a central principle of the Labour Party from its beginning. Clause Four of the partys constitution spelled out the commitment to nationalisation. After 1945, the Attlee government nationalised many key industries.
  6. Run on the pound
    A term describing a rapid fall in the value of the pound in international currency markets, especially in relation to the US dollar.
  7. "Stop-go" economics
    The economics of "stop-go" derived its name from the tensions between an expanding economy, with low interest rates and rising consumer spending "go" and the results of the economy over-heating, with wages and imports exceeding productivity and exports, necessitating a deliberate slowing down, or deflating of the economy "stop" through higher interest rates and spending cuts.
  8. Sterling
    A term used by economists for the British currency - the pound sterling
  9. Unilateral disarmament
    The policy of renouncing use and possession of nuclear weapons without waiting for any international consultation or agreement.
  10. Night of the Long Knives
    A label given by journalists to Harold Macmillans cabinet reshuffle in July 1962, comparing the reshuffle to the original "Night of the Long Knives" in 1934 when Adolf Hitler murdered many of his own supporters including the SA chief Ernst Roehm. Im Macmillans purge, he sacked seven senior ministers including his chancellow, Selwyn Lloyd.
  11. Demographic change (history)
    A change in the population trend, Demography, the study of population, tracks the increase in the overall population through birth rates, death rates and migration. Demography involves the analysis of shifts in the population, changes according to age, or movement between regions, or mobility between the classes
  12. New Commonwealth
    Those countries which has recently gained independence, India, Pakistan, the West Indies and so on, as compared to the "Old Commonwealth" countries like Australia, New Zealand, Canada and South Africa. The term was a useful, indirect way of differentiating between non-white and white populations.
  13. Infrastructure (history)
    The physical environmental of a modern developed society including the network of communications, such as roads, railways, airports and telecommunications, the industrial base, the public buildings, the schools and the housing stock.
  14. Apartheild
    A rigid system of segregation on racial grounds
  15. GDP (History)
    Gross Domestic Product, a term used by economists for the total value of a nations economy
  16. Prices and incomes policy
    Government intervention to set limits on price rises and to call for wage restraint in negotiations between unions and employers. In 1966, the Wilson government set up the Prices and Incomes Board to implement this.
  17. "Wildcat" strikes
    Sudden, unofficial local disputes begun without reference to the national leadership
  18. Stagflation
    A word invented by economists to describe the unusual combination of inflation and stagnant economic growth (which often produces unemployment) occurring at the same time
  19. Parliamentary private secretary (PPS)
    A job carried out by a junior MP. The main role of a PPS is to keep the PM in touch with backbench opinion
  20. OPEC (History)
    The Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries, a cartel formed under the leadership of Saudi Arabia to protect the interests of oil-exporting countries from the power of the advanced industrial economies. The OPEC countries agreed to fix levels of production in order to prevent prices from falling too low when oil supplies were plentiful.
  21. Working Majority
    Enough votes in the House of Commons to defeat all other parties even if they combine together. If this is not possible, the situation is known as a "hung parliament". 1974 was the first time there had been a hung parliament in modern times
  22. Flying Pickets
    Busloads of activists sent to the scene of local disputes to support strikers by pressuring workers to walk out and by blockading places of work to force closures. Flying pickets were often accused of intimidation and violence.
  23. Collectivist
    An approach to government and society that stresses the importance of the general good and the necessity for state intervention
  24. Monetarism
    An economic theory promoted by Milton friedman and the "Chicago School" of economists. They argued that the ebst way for governments to control inflation was by restraint of government spending and borrowing and, above all, by restrict curbs on the money supply.
  25. Wet (History)
    A derisive nickname given to a member the Conservative Party by Mrs Thatcher and her supporters for being soft and squeamish about the social consequences of monetarist economic policies
  26. Dry (history)
    A nickname given to conservatives who were firm and uncompromising in their support for monetarism
  27. Mass picketing
    A method by which strikers could prevent industry from operating normally during a strike. Mass pickets could put pressure on non-strikers and could blockade plants to stop transport arriving or leaving. It was used effectively in the Grunwick dispute of 1977 and was a key tactic for Arthur Scargill and the NUM in 1984
  28. Deregulation
    The loosening of controls on banks and financial markets. In Britain and in the United States, deregulation fitted in with political trends in favour of capitalism and free enterprise. There was a massive boom in investment banking and financial speculation. The issue of deregulation became very controversial in the Great Crash of 2008
  29. Big Bang
    27th October 1986, the day the London Stock Exchange was deregulated, opening the way for computer screen trading and replacing the "old boys network" with free competition. The Big Bang is credited with restoring Londons position as a world financial centre.
  30. Regicide
    The term for the killing of a monarch, such as the beheading of King Charles I in 1649
  31. North-South divide
    A term frequently used to express the difference between the prosperous south of Britain and the less prosperous north. It is not a completely accurate view; many areas in the norther England look like the prosperous suburban "south"; many areas of deprivation and parts of the south-west reflect the economic and social problems associated with the "north"
  32. King Coal
    Derived from the nursery rhyme about Old King Cole, this term reflected the historic importance of coalmining as Britains industrial development. Since the mid-19th century, Britain had been the worlds biggest producer and exporter of coal. At its peak, the coal and power industry employed 400,000. The role of the miners in the 1926 general strike and in the battle against Edward Heaths government in 1974 gave them a special status in the union movement
  33. Junta
    A military group that rules a country after taking power by force
  34. Third Way
    A New Labour term promising to get away from the divisive and out-of-date ideas if the old Labour left, dominated by the trade unions and Marxism, and from the old right, dominated by selfish capitalism.
  35. First-past-the-post
    A description of Britains electoral system. MPs are elected in single-member constituencies by winning the most votes, i.e. being first past the post. This might be by a huge majority of 20,000, or by a handful of votes. Thus a small electorial swing towards one party can decide the result in many marginal seats. Equally, a party can win a big share of the vote but very few seats.
  36. Jihadist
    A term used for a Muslim who supports violent struggle against the perceived enemies of Islam
  37. Neo-Conservatives
    The "Neo-cons" were very influential in the Bush administration. Men like Paul Wolfowitz, Richard Perle and John Bolton received strong backing from the Vice-President, Dick Cheney, and the Defense Secretary, Donald Rumsfeld. Neo-cons were contemptuous of the UN and traditional methods of diplomacy. They believed the United States had won the Cold War and should not be afraid to use its military power unilaterally to impose democratic regimes. They regarded Israel as a key ally in the war on terror and recommended extreme measures against suspected terrorists.
  38. Age of Affluence
    The period of consumer prosperity and rising living standards from about 1950 to 1973, sometimes known as "the long post-war boom"
  39. Apartheid
    Term used in the Republic of South Africa before 1994 to define the policy of "racial separation"
  40. BSE
    Bovine spongiform encephalitis, an incurable disease in cattle that destroys the nervous system. An outbreak of BSE in the 1990s caused major disruption to British Agriculture
  41. Butskellism
    Term invented by economists to describe "consensus" centrisy policies merging the ideas of Conservative moderates, symbolised by R.A. Butler and Labour moderates, symbolised by Hugh Gaitskell
  42. Balance of payments
    The relationship between government expenditure and income, particular in terms of exports and imports
  43. Clause four
    The clause in the Labour Party constitution committing the party to nationalisation, i.e. state ownership of the "commanding heights of the economy"
  44. Competitiveness
    Term used by economists to measure the degree of economic efficiency in free competition with other economies
  45. Collectivist policies
    Policies based on the idea of government intervention in society and the economy
  46. Decolonisation
    The process by which colonial powera gave up control and granted national independence to former colonies
  47. Deflationary pressures
    Usually caused by government polciies to fight against the dangers of inflation, "deflating" the economy by cutting spending and borrowing
  48. Devaluation
    Action to reduce the value of the pound sterling in relation to other currencies, such as the US dollar
  49. Deregulation
    Removing government controls and allowing greater competition. In the 1980s, there was deregulation of the financial markets, there was also deregulation in other areas, such as public transport
  50. Detente
    Term used to deine attempts to limit the dangers of the Cold War by reducing tensions and improving relations between the Soviet Bloc and the West
  51. Devolution
    Allowing a degree of self-government to Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales. Devolution has also been proposed for regions within England.
  52. EFTA
    European Free Trade Area, formed in 1959. Member states were; Britain, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Austria, Portugal and Switzerland
  53. Eurosceptic
    People in Britain opposed to any steps towards further European integration or who demanded renegotiation of the terms of Britains membership
  54. EU
    European union, the name of EEC after the Treaty of Maastricht in 1992
  55. Falklands Factor
    The effect of victory in the 1982 Falklands War in boosting the popularity of the government
  56. HRard left
    Term used in the 1970s and 1980s to define extreme socialist movements within the Labour party, such as the Militant tendency
  57. Infrastructure
    Term used to define the framework of a modern industrial economy, such as - roads, railways, telecommunications, power stations and public utilities
  58. National Service
    Compulsory military service by young males for 2 years from the age of 18. National service was introduced in 1947 and abandoned in 1960
  59. NATO
    The North Atlantic treaty Organisation, a military alliance formed in 1949 under American leadership to defend the West against the threat of Soviet communism
  60. Negative equity
    Term used when house prices fall and a homeowner is paying more for a mortgage that could be obtained by selling the property. This was a particular problem in the economic recession in Britain in the early 1990s
  61. OMOV
    One Member One Vote: The change to the Labour Party constitution in 1993, giving the vote on party matters individual members of the party. This measure reduced the power of trade unions because it ended the former system of block voting.
  62. Prices and incomes policy
    Government policy to combat inflation by restricting wage rises and price increases through voluntary agreements between workers and employers
  63. Post-war consensus
    The idea that the main political parties in Britain were agreed about the key aims for British society after 1951, such as ensuring full employment, mainting the welfare state and accepting government intervention in the economy
  64. Privatisation
    The policy of denartionalisation, removing economic enterprises from state control and placing them under private ownership and management
  65. Referendum Party
    A political party funded by James Goldsmith to fight the 1997 election on the specific issue of a referendum to decide whether Britain should leave the EU
  66. Right to Buy
    The right of council tenants to buy the home they have been renting at a discounted price, introduced by the 1980 Housing Act
  67. Run on the pound
    A sudden fall in the value of the pound sterling on the international exchange markets
  68. UKIP
    United Kingdom Independence Party, supported mostly by former conservatives who wished for Britain to immediately withdraw from the EU
  69. Working majority
    The situation of a government when it has many more seats in parliament than all other parties combined and can pass legislation without needing to compromise
  70. Weapons of mass destruction (WMD)
    The weapons that Saddam Hussein was believed to have developed in the 1990s, including biological, chemical and nuclear weapons
  71. Year of Miracles
    The events of 1989, when the Cold War ended and the states of East Central Europe suddenly and unexpectedly achieved freedom from Communist rule.
  72. Third Way
    A New Labour term for centrist policies that would avoid the right wing and left wing extremes and forge a new social and political consensus

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