3.4 Digestion Absorption and Transport

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3.4 Digestion Absorption and Transport
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Digestion, absorption, transport physiology
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  1. Summary of digestive processes) Ingestion
    Means putting food into mouth
  2. Summary of digestive processes) Mastication
    Chewing the food
  3. Summary of digestive processes) 2 components of propulsion
    -deglutition

    -peristalsis
  4. Summary of digestive processes) deglutition
    Swallowing bolus into GI tract
  5. Summary of digestive processes) Peristlasis
    Food is propelled through GI tract
  6. Summary of digestive processes) mixing
    Digestive juices are combined with the food swallowed
  7. Summary of digestive processes) secretion
    • Occurs at several places like mouth, stomach, small/large intestine
    • *saliva
    • *bicarbonate
    • -pancreas/stomach juices
  8. Summary of digestive processes) 2 types of digestion
    -chemical

    -mechanical
  9. Summary of digestive processes) absorption
    Things get absorbed from tract to blood
  10. Summary of digestive processes) excretion
    Remove unwanted waste that wasn't digested
  11. Summary of digestive processes) 2 ways it can be regulated
    -hormonal

    -nervous
  12. Digestion is controlled by
    Stimuli and feedback of the effect of those stimuli
  13. Regulated through (2)
    Hormones (endocrine) and the ANS
  14. Physiology of digestion) oral cavity: 2 ways of mastication
    -involuntary

    -voluntary
  15. Physiology of digestion) oral cavity: mastication, involuntary
    -stretch reflex
  16. Physiology of digestion) oral cavity: mastication, involuntary reflex process (6)
    -food that enters oral cavity stimulates pressure sensors located in tongue

    -causes a reflexive action that relaxes muscles of mastication.

    -these muscles are skeletal muscles so they contain muscle spindles so when they relax it causes the mandible to drop & the weight of mandible causes the muscles of mastication to stretch

    -important because when muscle spindles are stretched they contract

    -when muscles contract they cause mandible to rise

    • -this continues as a cycle
    • *relaxes and contracts on and off as it feels food on tongue
  17. Physiology of digestion) oral cavity: mastication, involuntary controlled by?
    • CN V, Mandibular branch
    • *efferent and afferent
  18. Physiology of digestion) oral cavity: mastication, voluntary
    • Decide or not to chew
    • *we can chew or stop chewing if we wanted
  19. Physiology of digestion) oral cavity: secretions, what are the 3 salivary glands?
    -parotid

    -sublingual

    -submandibular
  20. Physiology of digestion) oral cavity: secretions, what is significant about each of the salivary glands?
    All of the salivary glands different types of saliva
  21. Physiology of digestion) oral cavity: secretions, 2 types of saliva?
    -watery substance

    -mucus
  22. Physiology of digestion) oral cavity: secretions, saliva; salivary amylase
    • Digest CHO
    • *begins CHO breakdown
  23. Physiology of digestion) oral cavity: secretions, saliva; lingual lipase
    Digests lipids
  24. Physiology of digestion) oral cavity: secretions, Control of Salivation (3)
    Nervous reflex through CN V, VII, IX
  25. Physiology of digestion) oral cavity: secretions, 2 sensations on tongue
    -taste

    -touch
  26. Physiology of digestion) control of salivation: Anterior 2/3, which nerve handles touch in this area ?
    CN V
  27. Physiology of digestion) control of salivation: which CN handles taste in anterior 2/3 of tongue?
    CN VII
  28. Physiology of digestion) control of salivation: which CN controls taste and touch in posterior 1/3?
    CN IX
  29. Physiology of digestion) control of salivation: process
    Ant and Post portions of tongue send affront information to the Salvatory Nucleus which then sends parasympathetic CN VII & IX efferent to the salivary glands
  30. Physiology of digestion) control of salivation: what is Salivatory Nucleus (3)
    -located at junction of medulla/pons

    -integrates afferent/efferent information

    -sends parasympathetic efferent to salivary glands after receiving afferents from portions of the tongue
  31. Physiology of digestion) control of salivation: which CN does Salivatory nucleus use to send parasympathci efferent? (2)
    CN VII & IX
  32. Physiology of digestion) pharynx: use for
    swallowing
  33. Physiology of digestion) pharynx: swallowing
    Coordination of numerous muscles that are collectively innervated by CN V, IX, X, XI, XII
  34. Physiology of digestion) pharynx: what are the 3 phases of swallowing?
    -Buccal phase

    -pharyngeal phase

    -esophageal phase
  35. Physiology of digestion) pharynx: 3 phases of swallowing, Buccal phase (2)
    -voluntary

    -one can control this phase
  36. Physiology of digestion) pharynx: 3 phase soft swallowing, pharyngeal phase voluntary or involuntary?
    Involuntary
  37. Physiology of digestion) pharynx: 3 phase soft swallowing, pharyngeal phase process (4)
    -soft palate elevates and uvula closes the nasopharynx

    -larynx elevates and epiglottis closes

    -vocal cords close forcing food to go to esophagus

    -upper esophageal sphincter opens


    ***Blouse moves to pharynx
  38. Physiology of digestion) pharynx: 3 phase soft swallowing, esophageal phase (2)
    -upper esophageal sphincter closes again

    -contraction of muscles of pharynx to propel bolus to stomach
  39. Physiology of digestion) Stomach: Cells & secretions: mucous cells
    Secrete mucus to protect stomach against HCL
  40. Physiology of digestion) Stomach: Cells & secretions: Parietal cells (2)
    They secrete HCL & intrinsic factor
  41. Physiology of digestion) Stomach: Cells & secretions: where are parental cells found?
    Gastric pit
  42. Physiology of digestion) Stomach: Cells & secretions: chief cells secrete
    pepsinogen
  43. Physiology of digestion) Stomach: Cells & secretions: what is pepsinogen?
    Inactive enzyme that converts into Pepin in lumen of stomach
  44. Physiology of digestion) Stomach: Cells & secretions: endocrine cells , secrete (2)
    • Histamine & gastrin (hormones) into blood or neighboring cells
    • *regulate digestive processes
  45. Physiology of digestion) Stomach: Cells & secretions: what else do chief cells secrete that aid in lipid digestion?
    Gastric lipase
  46. Physiology of digestion) Stomach: Cells & secretions: what do gastric pits contain?
    Gastric glands
  47. Physiology of digestion) Stomach: Cells & secretions: where is pepsinogen and HCL secreted and where does it enter?
    Gastric pit ; lumnen
  48. Physiology of digestion) Stomach: regulation, 2 activities in stomach that are regulated?
    -gastric secretion

    -muscular activity
  49. Physiology of digestion) Stomach: regulation, what causes increased activity?
    Nervous & hormonal control
  50. Physiology of digestion) Stomach: 3 phases
    -cephalic phase

    -gastric phase

    -intestinal phase
  51. Physiology of digestion) Stomach: cephalic phase
    Before food enter stomach
  52. Physiology of digestion) Stomach: gastric phase
    When food enter stomach
  53. Physiology of digestion) Stomach: intestinal phase
    After food leaves stomach enters deudonum
  54. Physiology of digestion) Stomach: what stimulates the cephalic phase? (2)
    -taste, smell, thoughts of food

    -pressure of food on oral cavity
  55. Physiology of digestion) Stomach: cephalic phase, after the initial phase what happens?
    Afferents through the respective CNS to medulla
  56. Physiology of digestion) Stomach: cephalic phase: what does medulla do? (2_
    Integrates information & sends messages to salivary glands

    -sends message via vague nerve to stomach to increase gastric secretions and muscular contractions
  57. Physiology of digestion) Stomach: gastric phase, food enters the stomach and what occurs to distention?
    As you put more food into stomach the more is distents
  58. Physiology of digestion) Stomach: gastric phase, what does distention cause?
    • Vagal reflex to medulla
    • *vagus to medulla
  59. Physiology of digestion) Stomach: gastric phase, after vagal telex, medulla then
    Sends vagus message to increase gastric  secretions
  60. Physiology of digestion) Stomach: gastric phase, if the food that entered ins tomach contain PRO then
    Gastrin will increase which causes HCL secretion to increase
  61. Physiology of digestion) Stomach: gastric phase, HCL secretion is also promotes by (3)
    vagus

    hsitmaine

    -gastrin
  62. Physiology of digestion) Stomach: gastric phase, what else besides HCL secretion does vagus stimulate
    Increase in muscular contraction
  63. Physiology of digestion) Stomach: intestinal phase, 2 phases within this one
    -excitatory & inhibitory
  64. Physiology of digestion) Stomach: intestinal phase/excitatory phase: when initial gastric chyme enter deudonum....ph of deudonum is
    • Greater than 3
    • *more basic than stomach
  65. Physiology of digestion) Stomach: intestinal phase/excitatory phase: what does having pH greater than 3.0 causes? (2)
    Increase in enteric gastrin hormone which causes increase gastric secretion, muscular contraction


    Increase of vagus nerve causing increase of gastric secretions and muscular contraction
  66. Physiology of digestion) Stomach: intestinal phase/inhibitory phase: starts to occur when
    More gastric chyme enter duodenum leading to lower pH below 3.0
  67. Physiology of digestion) Stomach: intestinal phase/inhibitory phase: what's one thing that occurs when pH goes below 3
    -intestinal hormones increase secretin and CCK while enteric gastrin decreases which leads to decrease gastric secretions and muscular contractions
  68. Physiology of digestion) Stomach: intestinal phase/inhibitory phase: what's the other thing pertaining to nerves that occurs when pH goes below 3? (2)
    -decreases vagus myenterics

    -increase sympathetic innervation and pylori sphincter closes which leads to decrease gastric secretions and muscular contractions
  69. Physiology of digestion) Stomach:  when stomach fills... what happens to rugae?
    Rugae flatten
  70. Physiology of digestion) Stomach: mixes food with digestive juices creating
    chyme
  71. Physiology of digestion) Stomach: pepsinogen in pH less than 3
    Converts to Pepin that digests proteins
  72. Physiology of digestion) Stomach: empties every
    3-4 hours avg meal
  73. Physiology of digestion) Small intestine: 3 types of cells
    -absorptive

    -goblet

    -endocrine
  74. Physiology of digestion) Small intestine: cells: absorptive
    Contains microvilli in columnar shape
  75. Physiology of digestion) Small intestine: cells: goblet
    Mucus important for protection from chyme
  76. Physiology of digestion) Small intestine: cells: endocrine secretes (3)
    Secretin, CCK, enteric gastrin into bloodstream not in lumen
  77. Physiology of digestion) liver: how many lobes?
    4
  78. Physiology of digestion) liver: functions (5)
    -bile production

    -storage of nutrients

    -detoxification

    -synthesis of proteins

    -defense
  79. Physiology of digestion) liver: bile production
    Bile is a derivative of cholesterol
  80. Physiology of digestion) liver: storage of nutrients
    Such as CHO
  81. Physiology of digestion) liver: detoxification
    Breaks down alcohol, other drugs
  82. Physiology of digestion) liver: synthesis of PROs
    Anti- clotting, complement PROs
  83. Physiology of digestion) liver: defense
    • kupffer cells which are macrophages that destroy unwanted materials like a spleen
    • *liver takes over spleen job if it is removed
  84. Physiology of digestion) gall bladder: stores how much bile?
    40-70 ml
  85. Physiology of digestion) gall bladder: contracts after meal to
    Release bile
  86. Physiology of digestion) gall bladder: does it manufacture anything?
    no
  87. Physiology of digestion) pancreas: what do acinar cells produce?
    Different digestive enzymes
  88. Physiology of digestion) pancreas secretions: aqueous component? (2)
    Consists of H2O & bicarbonate
  89. Physiology of digestion) pancreas secretions: enzymatic components, 4 different types
    -proteolytic enzymes

    -amylase

    -lipase

    -ribonuclease
  90. Physiology of digestion) pancreas secretions: enzymatic components, proteolytic enzymes digest
    PROs
  91. Physiology of digestion) pancreas secretions: enzymatic components, 3 types of proteolytic enzymes (3)
    -trypsin

    -chymotrypsin

    -carboxypeptidase
  92. Physiology of digestion) pancreas secretions: enzymatic components, amylase
    Digest CHO
  93. Physiology of digestion) pancreas secretions: enzymatic components, lipase
    Digests fats
  94. Physiology of digestion) pancreas secretions: enzymatic components, ribonuclease
    Digests Nucloacids
  95. Physiology of digestion) mechanical process of small intestine, 2 types of movements?
    -segmentation

    -peristalsis
  96. Physiology of digestion) mechanical process of small intestine, segmentation (2)_
    -mix chyme back and forth

    -most common movement
  97. Physiology of digestion) mechanical process of small intestine, peristalsis (2)
    -Propel chyme down tube

    -not a lot in small intestine
  98. Physiology of digestion) chemical process of small intestine, hormone and digestive juices: in deudonum...endocrine cells secrete (3)
    -secretin

    -CCK

    -enteric gstrin
  99. Excitatory phase of intestinal phase) acidic chyme enter deudoneum from stomach, if pH is
    Greater than 3 then enteric gstrin will be release
  100. Excitatory phase of intestinal phase) acidic chyme enter deudoneum from stomach, secretin release stimulate by
    ph less than 3
  101. Excitatory phase of intestinal phase) acidic chyme enter deudoneum from stomach, CCK release stimulated by (2)
    Fatty acids and amino acids
  102. Excitatory phase of intestinal phase) acidic chyme enter deudoneum from stomach, the hormones released enter
    Bloodstream NOT lumen to reach target organs
  103. What do CCK and secretin do? In pancreas secretin
    Secretes watery bicarb secretion
  104. What do CCK and secretin do? In pancreas, CCK
    Pancreatic enzymes released from acinar cells
  105. What do CCK and secretin do? In liver and gallbladder...secretin
    Causes bile secretion from liver
  106. What do CCK and secretin do? In liver and gallbladder...CCK
    Causes gallbladder contraction to secrete bile
  107. The entire process is under stimulation from vagus, what does it stimulate? (3)
    secretion of hormones

    peristlasis

    Segmentation
  108. End result : (4)
    -chyme is mixed with bicarb and exnymes to lower it acidity

    -enzyme break down each organic nutrient into their component building blocks

    -bicarb raises pH of chyme

    -cycle is repeated for each new bolus of chyme
  109. End result : cycle is repeated for each new bolus of chyme (4)
    When pH goes down below 3 then secretin and CCK are excreted.

    Thispromts the stomach to stop dumping contents on small intestine.

    Bicarb raises PH & the enteric gastrin increases again.

    Stomach resumes dumping chyme again
  110. End result : what does enteric gastrin do?
    Stimulates stomach to dump chyme
  111. End result : absorption occurs in
    Remainder of small intestineq
  112. End result : where is b12 absorbed in?
    Ileum with intrinsic factor
  113. Large intestine) structure (4)
    -large lumen

    -no plica

    -no villi

    -no digestive enzymes
  114. Large intestine) secretion: goblet cells
    Secrete mucus in l int
  115. Large intestine) secretion: epithelial cells
    Secrete bicarb to neutralize chyme
  116. Large intestine) secretion: bacteria
    Secrete vitamin K
  117. What's main purpose of L intestine?
    Mass movement or bowel movemtn
  118. Large intestine) what's gastrocolic or duodenocolic reflex? (2)
    Distention of stomach and duodenal causes this to occur

    Purpose to move old fecal matter out of the way

    **food enters and old chyme moves out of the way
  119. Large intestine) defection reflex: fecal matter moving into rectum causes
    Rectal distention
  120. Large intestine) defection reflex: what does rectal distention initiate?
    Sensory fibers
  121. Large intestine) defection reflex: sensory fibers send afferents signals to
    Spinal cord
  122. Large intestine) defection reflex: spinal cord sends parasympathetic fibers
    S2,3,4 to intiate peristalsis
  123. Large intestine) defection reflex: peristlaiss leads to
    Relaxation of internal and external spnhinters  which causes oeping of anal canal
  124. Large intestine) defection reflex: which sphincter can be controlled?
    External anal spjhintecer

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