3.5 Chemical digestion absorption and overview metabolism

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3.5 Chemical digestion absorption and overview metabolism
2015-04-10 02:04:29

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  1. Hydrolysis
    Breaks down compounds by adding water
  2. Water soluble products are absorbed by?
    GI tract to hepatic portal veins
  3. Lipids are absorbed by
  4. lacteals are ____________ that drain to
    Lymph capillaries that drain to thoracic duct
  5. Thoracic duct drains into
    subclavian vein
  6. CHO hydrolysis) where does it begin?
    Oral cavity by salivary amylase
  7. CHO hydrolysis) stomach
    Bolus mixers with gastric juice but there is no enzymatic breakdown
  8. CHO hydrolysis) small intestine: what resumes breakdown of CHO?
    Pancreatic amylase
  9. CHO hydrolysis) small intestine: what stimulate the release of pancreatic amylase?
  10. CHO hydrolysis) small intestine: what does pancreatic amylase do?
    Small oligosaccharides digested to monosaccharides, disaccarhrides in small intestine in lumen
  11. CHO hydrolysis) small intestine: brush border enzymes, dissacharides are digested by
    dissacharidases brush border enzyme that cleave disaccharides into monosaccharides
  12. CHO hydrolysis) small intestine: brush border enzymes are located
    Embedded in microvilli of absorptive cell
  13. PRO) oral cavity?
    No chemical breakdown just mastication going on
  14. PRO) stomach: pepsin
    Cleaves at tyrosine and phenylalanine which yields small polypeptides and free amino acids
  15. PRO) stomach: what activates Pepin?
  16. PRO) small intestine: Pro are exposed to
    Proteases from pancreas
  17. PRO) small intestine: which 2 proteases attack PRO?

  18. PRO) small intestine: what does carboxypeptidase do?
    Cleaves polypeptides into dipeptides, amino acids
  19. PRO) small intestine:bursh border enzyme Cleaves
    Remaining dipeptides into amino acids
  20. n.a) small intestine: what breaks down N.A?
    Pancreatic nucleases
  21. n.a) small intestine, brush border enzymes
    Breaks Na.A down to sugar, phosphate, nitrogen, bases
  22. Lipids) oral vacity
    Mastication only
  23. Lipids) stomach?
    Mixing with gastric juices
  24. Lipids) small intestine: 2 things
    -emulsification by bile salts

    -pancreatic lipase
  25. emuslfiaction process by bile salts (3)
    The hydrophobic region inserts itself into the large lipid droplet

    While the charged hydrophilic region remains in contact with water based enviroenmtn

    • Breaks up the large droplet into smaller droplets which are now surrounded by bile
    • *called micelles
  26. Lipids) small intestine: pancreatic lipase (4)
    Breaks down lipids into FFA, glycerol, monoglycerides, cholesterol
  27. Absorption) CHO (2)
    --secondary active transport couple with Na or facilitated diffusion

    Facilitated diffusion to blood
  28. Absorption) PRO (2)
    Secondary active transport absorption couples with NA

    Active transport to bloodstream or diffusion
  29. Absorption) lipids initial step to get into cell
    Micelles diffuse inside cell bc they are lipid based
  30. Absorption) lipids: what happens right after it enter cell?
    They get resynthesized into tryacylglyceorls
  31. Absorption) lipids: after resynthesization they are coated with PRO which are now called?
  32. Absorption) lipids: where are chylomciorns absorbed?
    In lacteal
  33. Absorption) lipids: process from lacteal to subaclavian (4)
    Lacteal > lymph > thoracic duct > subalcaivin vein
  34. Absorption) lipids: in capillaries : lipoprotein lipase...
    Cleaves tri to FFA and glycerol
  35. Absorption) lipids: where is liporpeotin lipase located?
    Capillary endothelial cell
  36. N.A are absorbed
    • By blood stream from intestinal epithelial cells
    • *similar to CHO and PRo
  37. Absorption) vitamins : chemical digestion?
    No chemical digestion
  38. Absorption) vitamins : fat soluble absorbed with
  39. Absorption) vitamins : water soluble ...
  40. Absorption) vitamins : vii b 12 and intrinsic facts
    Absorbed together in distal ileum
  41. Absorption) ions: Na
    Na transport with glucose and A.A then pumped into bloodstream
  42. Absorption) ions: K diffusion
    Gradient created by osmosis
  43. Absorption) ions: iron and calcium  (2)
    Iron actively transported in

    Calcium regulated by vita d & parathyroid hormone
  44. Absorption) ions: Chloride  (2)
    Both passive and active

    Often exchange with bicarb
  45. Absorption) water, what eprcet is absorbed?>
  46. Absorption) water , where is most absorbed?
    Small intestine
  47. Absorption) water, remainder water absorbed ?
    • Large intestine
    • *dehydrated the waste
  48. Metabolism overview) 6 things that can lead to synthesis of ellular structures, energy containing compounds?
    -stored tri and diet

    -stoeg glycogen and diet

    -stored protein and diet `
  49. Absorptive state ) after meal, tissues like muscle, liver, adipose absorb
    Macros from blood
  50. Post absorptive state) glucagon simulated by?
    Decrease in blood glucose
  51. Post absorptive state) produce (3)
    atp co2 and h2o
  52. Insulin control stimulated by
    Increased blood glucose
  53. Insulin control can be stimulated by (3)
    cck gastrin and secretin