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What is the RNR principle?
- The risk needs responsibility principle
- Risk: people with highest risk require the most intensive intervention. This risk is assessed by looking at the factors in their life that push them towards crime
- Needs: factors that increase or decrease criminal activity should be focussed on and treated
- Responsively: the right treatment should be provided at the right level, use techniques to maximise offender motivation to change
What are the 8 core risk factors to reoffending?
- Antisocial attitudes
- Antisocial peer group
- Antisocial personality pattern
- History of antisocial behaviour
- Family and marital factors
- Lack of achievement in education and employment
- Lack of pro-social leisure activities
- Substance abuse
What is the difference between static and dynamic risk factors?
- Static: factors that cannot be manipulated (gender, childhood abuse, prior offences etc)
- Dynamic: factors that can be changed with intervention (accommodation, employment etc)
What is the difference between criminogenic and non criminogenic needs?
- Criminogenic: needs and desires associated with criminal activity (hostility, criminal associates, pr-criminal attitudes etc)
- Non-criminogenic: needs and desires not associated with criminal activity (self esteem, feelings of alienation, group cohesion etc)
How is responsivity to rehabilitation assessed?
- Use an interview technique
- Assess factors such as skills, relationships, level of education and community ties
- Assess factors that might affect response to treatment such as anxiety levels, levels of motivation, gender, reading ability and language
What are forensic interviews?
- Purpose is made clear to the interviewee at the start and the limits of confidentiality made clear
- Time is taken to establish the appropriate rapport with the interviewee
- Dispositional (offender characteristics) and situational (characteristics of the physical and social environment relevant to the defendant) are assessed
- Risk and protective (factors that reduce the risk of offending) are assessed
- Wherever possible, other sources of information are used to supplement whatever is gathered in the interview
What is the LSI-R?
- The level of service inventory (revised)
- 54 item inventory focussing on offender needs and risks
- Covers criminal history, accommodation, education and employment, alcohol and drug problems etc
- Scores range from 0-13 (low risk): 11.7% recidivism rates to 41-47 (high risk): 76%
What are the two approaches to risk management?
- Therapeutic approaches: focusses on changing the offender using psychological and skills based intervention
- Situational approaches: focusses on changing the contexts responsible for crime with the interning of preventing relapse into crime
How is antisocial behaviour managed?
- Indicators: impulsiveness, irritability, adventurousness etc
- Intervention goals: self management skills are build and anger management taught
How are pro-criminal attitudes managed?
- Indicators: rationalisations for crime, negative attitudes towards the law
- Goals: counter with prosocial attitudes, build up prosocial attitudes
How is substance abuse managed?
- Indicators: abuse of alcohol or drugs
- Goals: reduce substance abuse using things such as AA, enhance alternatives to abuse