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- Found in the stomach.
- It causes stomach ulcers.
Lactobacilli and Bacteriodes
- Found in the Large/Small intestines.
- They create a better environment for digestion.
- It creates yeast infections in the vaginal area (urogenital tract)
Staphylococcus Epidermis and Aureus
- Staphlyococcus: Ball-shaped grape-like cluster of cells.
Streptococcus Salivarus, Mutans, and Pyogenes
- Streptococcus: A chain of ball-shaped-like cells.
What/Where are Microbes?
- They are everywhere!
- 100 trillion on us vs. 10 trillion human cells.
- 60% of all organic matter.
- Microbes can create different types of coloring for clothes (E. Coli bacteria produces indigo from trytophan).
- They are pathogens, antibiotics, disease research, food chain, digestive, bioremediation, foods and fermentation, and biotechnology.
- Plants can pick and choose microbes for different protection or growth.
Why study Microbiology?
- 1% or less of microbes cause disease in humans.
- Life expectancy has doubled since learning about and treating microbes.
- Developed countries know what types of bacteria they have and control them, whereas bacteria hs overtaken developing countries and are still trying to find ways to defeat them.
Why use them for research?
They have simple structures, they're in large numbers, and grow quickly.
- 1.7 million species named, 10 to 100 million more out there.
- All living things have 3 things: plasma membrane surrounding cell, ATP for energy, and DNA as genetic information.
- All must mean the same thing, consistent names needed.
- Base taxonomy ideally on evolutionary or phylogenic relationships.
- Advanced organisms easier - mating only between same species.
- Microbes (mostly bacteria) have Lateral Gene Transfer (they grab DNA from other bacteria and instantly change).
- Founder: Carolus Linnaeus
- 2 Kindoms: Plants and Animals
- Genus followed by species
- strain will follow species if there is one.
Study of the evolutionary history of organisms.
- Started by Carolus Linnaeus
- Plants and Animals
- Problems, moving plants and animals making their own food.
- Started by Haeckel
- Simple life (single celled life) put into third kingdom - Protista.
- Electron microscope invented, saw lack of nucleus in some organisms called Prokaryotes.
- Started by Marulis and Copeland, Protista split into two groups.
- Monera: All Prokaryotes (No nucleus, no membrane bound organelles, DNA replication is different).
- Protoctista: Algae, Protozoa, Fungi
- Plantae and Animalia
- Started by Whittaker
- Fungi in new kingdom, can absorb nutrients, very different than everyone else.
- All prokaryotes are in Monera, the other 4 kingdoms are all eukaryotes.
- All Monera are single celled, all Plants and Animals are multicellular.
- All Kingdoms except for Animalia have a cell wall.
- Bacteria=peptidoglycan, Archaea=Non-peptidoglycan
- Fungi can only absorb.
- Monera reproduces asexually and by binary fission.
- Carl Woose started ribosomal RNA sequencing.
- Prokaryotes now split into Bacteria and Archaea.
- Archaea: Extremophiles, hot temps, acid, salt, hydrothermal vents.
- Prokaryotes for the most part have 1 circular chromosome and divide through binary fission, 1 cell splitting into 2, no nucleus.
How are Eukaryotic cells created?
They came to be by eating/absorbing bacteria into them to create mitochondria and choroplasts.
- 1. Domain
- 2. Kingdom
- 3. Phylum
- 4. Class
- 5. Order
- 6. Family
- 7. Genus
- 8. Species