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Considering the electorate as a whole, ___ remains the dominant medium in terms of political influence.
b. print media
c. the internet
By helping to determine what people will talk and think about, the media determine the issues politicians will address. This is known as
a. netroots activism.
b. spin doctoring.
c. managed news coverage.
d. agenda setting.
The ___ has been called the first "television war."
a. Vietnam War
b. Iraq War
c. Korean War
d. First Gulf War
___ is an agenda-setting technique that establishes the context of a media report.
a. Media blitzing
A "sound bite" is best defined as
a. the distribution of audio or video files to personal computers or mobile devices, such as Smartphones.
b. a televised comment, lasting for only a few seconds, that captures a thought or a perspective and has an immediate impact on the viewers.
c. the fringe beliefs that talk-radio show hosts espouse in order to enhance the entertainment value of their statements.
d. a campaign technique used by spin doctors who try to convince reporters to give a story or an event concerning a candidate a particular slant.
a televised comment, lasting for only a few seconds, that captures a thought or a perspective and has an immediate impact on the viewers.
For the 2012 election cycle, the Sunlight Foundation has estimated that total spending on political advertisements may have reached
a. $4.3 billion.
b. $1.4 billion.
c. $9.8 billion.
d. $2.3 billion.
Which of the following was NOT a strategy used by the presidential candidates in the 2012 election?
a. Obama chose to "go positive" and show his genuine concern for others while avoiding personal attack ads.
b. Obama decided to portray Romney as a ruthless, wealthy financier who was out of touch with ordinary people.
c. Romney decided to "go positive" about himself and show his genuine concern for others.
d. Romney attempted to lure Independents by persuading them that his team could do a better job.
Obama chose to "go positive" and show his genuine concern for others while avoiding personal attack ads.
The famous "daisy girl" ad was used during which presidential race?
a. Eisenhower-Stevenson (1952)
b. Clinton-Bush (1992)
c. Nixon-Kennedy (1960)
d. Goldwater-Johnson (1964)
The first televised presidential debate took place between ___ and ___.
a. Barry Goldwater; Lyndon Johnson
b. Dwight Eisenhower; Adlai Stevenson
c. Richard Nixon; Hubert Humphrey
d. John Kennedy; Richard Nixon
John Kennedy; Richard Nixon
Candidates' campaign managers and political consultants have shown increasing sophistication in creating newsworthy events for journalists to cover, an effort commonly referred to as
b. managed news coverage.
managed news coverage
Ever since ___ held his "fireside chats" on radio, politicians have realized the power of that medium.
a. John Kennedy
b. Warren G. Harding
c. Ronald Reagan
d. Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Which of the following statements is TRUE of modern talk radio?
a. Today, there are about 200 talk-show radio stations.
b. Modern talk radio grew substantially after the FCC repealed the fairness doctrine in 1987.
c. Current Arbitron ratings show that the top ten talk radio stations are decidedly liberal.
d. Modern talk radio in the United States took off during the 1930's.
Modern talk radio grew substantially after the FCC repealed the fairness doctrine in 1987.
Which of the following statements about talk radio listeners is accurate according to a recent Pew Research Center report?
a. Forty-one percent of regular talk radio listeners identify themselves as Republicans.
b. Thirty-five percent of the public regularly listen to talk radio.
c. Fifty-four percent of regular talk radio listeners identify themselves as Democrats.
d. Sixty-five percent of talk radio listeners are females under age 30.
Forty-one percent of regular talk radio listeners identify themselves as Republicans.
___ is best known for using his television pulpit to promote the Tea Party movement and for his emotional style and apocalyptic views.
a. Sean Hannity
b. Rush Limbaugh
c. Glenn Beck
d. Bill O'Reilly
Which of the following statements about the fairness doctrine is TRUE?
a. It required holders of broadcast licenses to present honest, equitable, and balanced viewpoints on controversial issues.
b. It gave holders of broadcast licenses the freedom to broadcast one viewpoint exclusively.
c. It was repealed by Congress in 1997.
d. It is still in force today.
It required holders of broadcast licenses to present honest, equitable, and balanced viewpoints on controversial issues.
In a 2013 Gallup poll measuring the public's confidence in various institutions, ___ percent of the respondents stated that they had a "great deal" or "quite a lot" of confidence in television news.
Which of the following statements about media bias is TRUE, based on analysis of polls and surveys?
a. From 1999 to 2013, campaign contributors who list their occupation as journalist or reporter gave 74 percent of their donations to Democrats and only 13 percent of their donations to Republicans.
b. The majority of Americans believe that the media is evenly balanced between liberal and conservative views.
c. About 24 percent of reporters in both national and local media apply the term "moderate" to themselves.
d. Among journalists working for national news outlets, 22 percent describe themselves as conservative and 5 percent as liberal.
From 1999 to 2013, campaign contributors who list their occupation as journalist or reporter gave 74 percent of their donations to Democrats and only 13 percent of their donations to Republicans.
Media scholar Kathleen Hall Jamieson suggests that a media bias against ___ does play a role in shaping presidential campaigns and elections.
The expansion of the media universe to include cable channels and the Internet has created competition for viewers and readers and resulted in
a. an increase in the bottom line.
b. conservative bias.
c. higher quality news coverage.
d. selection bias.
News organizations that base shows on highly politicized figures like Bill O'Reilly or Rachel Maddow are using the ___ niche to build their audience.
a. citizen journalism
c. personal commentary
Taken as a whole, the collection, analysis, and dissemination of information online by ordinary people is often referred to as
a. managed news coverage.
b. citizen journalism.
d. cyberspace reporting.
What has resulted from the increase in participatory journalism?
a. The existence of mainstream news organizations is threatened.
b. Newspapers have invested in online news delivery and increased their readership and revenues.
c. The online share of newspaper company revenues has decreased to 2 percent.
d. Newspapers now rely on their websites to recoup the losses in revenue experienced by their print editions.
The existence of mainstream news organizations is threatened.
According to a Pew Research Center survey following the 2012 presidential elections, ___ percent of Americans said that they had gone online for election news.
Fund-raising on the Internet by presidential candidates became widespread after
a. the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) of 1971 restricted the amount that could be spent on mass media advertising, including television.
b. the Supreme Court's decision in the 2010 case Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission (FEC) limited the ability of corporations, unions, nonprofit groups, or individuals to fund campaign advertising.
c. the Federal Election Commission decided that the federal government could distribute matching funds for credit-card donations received by candidates via the Internet in 1999.
d. the Bipartisan Reform Act of 2002 banned all soft money.
the Federal Election Commission decided that the federal government could distribute matching funds for credit-card donations received by candidates via the Internet in 1999.
Candidates wanting to deliver a consistent campaign message to voters often find it difficult to control the ___, online activists who support the candidate but are not a part of the candidate's organization.
a. netroots groups
b. spin doctors
d. mass media