Airborne disease list

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Airborne disease list
2015-04-11 21:26:54
airborne diseases list

Airborne diseases; Bacterial & viral
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  1. Staphylococcal phariyngitis
    • CAUSATIVE AGENT=Streptococcus pyogenes
    • CHARACT= Gram (+), cocci, chanis
    • VIRULENCE FACTOR= Capsules, M protein (attachment), Produce toxins; 1- Hemolysin, 2- streptolysins
    • RESERVOIR=Humans
    • SYMPTOMS= inflammation of throat, fever, tonsillitis, otitis media.
    • DIAGNOSIS= 1-Serological test, 2- Hemolysis B
    • TREATMENT= Antibiotics; penicillin
    • PREVENTIVE MEASURE= Screening for carriers.
    • PREDISPOSITION FACTOR= working on medical field
  2. Scarlet fever
    • CA= Streptococcus pyogene
    • CH= Gram (+), cocci, chains
    • VF= Erythrogenic exotoxin (via lysogeny)
    • S= High fever, skin rash, strawberry tongue.
    • D= Observation of tongue.
    • T= Antibiotics; Penicillin 
    • PM= Cover mouth and nose when sneezing.
  3. Diphtheria (Toxigenic)
    • CA= Cornybacterium diphtheriae 
    • CH= Gram (+), Pleiomorphic bacilli, resistant to drying
    • VF= Powerful exotoxins (small LD 50) 
    • S= Heart & kidney damage= paralysis-> death
    • D= Culture observation.
    • T= Antibiotics & Antitoxins 
    • PM= children; DTaP, Adults; TDaP (Diphtheria, Tetanus & Pertussis toxoid)
  4. Diphtheria (Non-toxigenic)
    • CA= Cornybacterium diphtheriae
    • CH= Gram (+), Pleiomorphic bacilli, resistant to drying
    • VF= non toxic
    • S= Early; sore throat & fever, late; membrane formation & swelling (block air passage)
    • D= Accumulation of membrane
    • T= Antibiotic
    • PM= Child;DTaP, Adult TDaP
  5. Pneumococcal pneuomoniae
    • CA= Streptococcus pneumoniae 
    • CH= Gram (+), cocci in pairs
    • VF= Capsule (~90 serovars) largest polysaccharide capsule.
    • S= Quick onset; high fever, difficulty breathing, chest pain, fluid accumulation in lungs.
    • D= Alpha hemolysis
    • T= Antibiotic.
    • PM= Vaccine; capsular antigen from multiple strains, recomended for elderly
  6. Pertussis (whooping cough)
    • CA= Bordetella pertussis
    • CH= Gram (-), Aerobic coccobacillus  
    • VF= Tracheal cytotoxin (endotoxin kills cilia) 
    • Incubation= 5-10 days
    • S= Violent cough
    • T= Antibiotics
    • PM= child;DTaP, adults TDaP.
  7. Tuberculosis
    • CA= Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    • CH= Slender rods, obligate aerobe, fungus-like growth, Acid-fast staining.
    • VF= Multiply in macrophages-> tubercles in lungs, resistant to drying & chemicals, mycolic acid in cell wall
    • S= persistent low fever, weight loss, weakness, blood in cough, Activated macrophage forms tubercles in lung-> tubercle bursts then goes -> systemic
    • D= tuberculin skin test, chest x-ray, fast staining of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    • T= vaccine antibodies, prolonged treatment of isoniazid & rifampicin
    • PM= BCG given whe traveling to TB countries.
    • PF= High dense population, cold temperatures.
  8. Influenza
    • CA= Influenza virus
    • CH= Enveloped RNA, H&N spikes
    • VF= Antigenic variation; mutation, Antigenic shift;combination
    • RESERVOIR= human, bird, farm animals.
    • TRANSMISSION= droplet/contact
    • S= chills, fever, muscle ache. if virulent=viral pneumonia.
    • D= no diagnosis.
    • T= antiviral; Tamiflu against type A if taken within 30 hrs. of onset.
    • PM= multivalent vaccines( short term, 3 yrs), nasal spray(live attenuated)
  9. Smallpox
    • CA= Variola virus
    • CH= Double stranded enveloped virus, tissue specificity: skin
    • VF= 2 strains; 1 variola major (high mortality), 2 variola minor (less mortality)
    • TRAANSMISSION= droplet/contact.
    • S= Viremia leads to pustular lessions on skin and destruction of epidermal layers (pockmarks), blindness due to cornea ulceration.
    • D= pustular lesions on skin
    • T= No treatment
    • PM= Vaccine of live virus.
  10. Chickenpox/HHV3
    • CA= Varicella zoster virus
    • CH= double stranded enveloped DNA
    • TRANSMISSION=  droplet
    • Incubation= 2 weeks.
    • S= Viremia leads to high fever, itchy skin rash, formation of fluid-filled vesicles on face,throat and lower back.
    • D= fluid-filled vesicles on face, throat and lower back, high fever.
    • PM= varicella vaccine since 1995.
  11. Shingles
    • CA= Herpes zoster virus
    • CH= Can survive inactivated in nervous system
    • VF= Latent by hiding in nervous system due to low amount of antibodies.
    • Transmission= N/A
    • S= localized pain along sensory neurons on skin(Neuralgia), rash.
    • D= Rash that looks like a snake (around trunk or arms)
    • T= Acyclovir.
    • PM= young= varicella vaccine
  12. Measles
    • CA= Rubeola virus 
    • CH= Enveloped RNA, Antigenically stable
    • VF= Highly contagious.
    • Transmission= Droplet.
    • S= fever runny nose, macular rash (trunk & extremities) and koplik's spots in oral cavity.
    • D= Koplik's spots
    • Treatment= no treatment.
    • PM= MMR vaccine & monovalent measles vaccines.
  13. German Measles
    • CA= Rubella virus.
    • CH= single stranded RNA virus.
    • VF= Highly contagious
    • Transmission= Droplet
    • Incubation= 2-3 weeks.
    • S= mild fever, runny nose, cough, macular rash, pink eye
    • D= Rubella antibody test in women.
    • Treatment=
    • PM= MMR vaccine.