Ch 5

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  1. Incongruent
    incongruent-nonverbal cues do not match your verbal cues. ex:"I hate you," said with a joking voice
  2. Kinesics
    • A broad range of messages communicated through the human body, including the eyes, face, gestures, and posture.
    • Such as: adaptors and regulators
  3. Adaptors
    A wide range of movements that are intended to hide or "manage" emotions that we do not want to communicate directly. ex: self-adaptors & object-adaptors
  4. self-adaptors
    The ways in which we manipulate our body, such as chewing nails, twisting hair, cracking knuckles, or biting the inside of our cheeks. When we experience anxiety, stress, uncertainty, or other negative feelings, we use adaptors to help us reduce these feelings.
  5. object-adaptors
    When we use objects such as a pen or pencil, or glassses, or cigarette to hide or "manage" emotions that we do not want to communicate directly. Used as stress reducers.
  6. Regulators
    Cues on taking turns in conversations - looking for a response when we are done speaking.
  7. 7 human emotions using facial expression
    • sad, happy, anger, fear, surprise,disgust, and a anger
    • verbal connumication is the "content" of the message, while nonverbal communication is the "relationship"
    • eye contact establishes a relationship
  8. Nonverbal communication modifies verbal communication in 4 ways
    • 1. complement or clarify (congruence)
    • 2. to contradict (incongruence)
    • 3. to repeat or reinforce
    • 4. to substitute for verbal messages
  9. Congruent messages
    p. 81
    When verbal and nonverbal messages match in meaning
  10. To repeat or reinforce verbal messages
    Ex: When you nod your head while saying "yes," your nonverbal message reinforces your verbal message
  11. To substitute for verbal messages
    When you nod your head instead of saying "yes," your nonverbal message serves as a substitute for a verbal message.
  12. Facial expressions
    Identify the 7 human emotions sadness, happiness, anger, fear, surprise, disgust, and anger
  13. Kinesics - Study of the body and face through emblems vs illustrators.
    p. 83-84
    • Emblems are non-verbal cues. ex nodding yes, thumbs up gesture, etc
    • Illustrators are using gestures while speaking
  14. Physical characteristics like attraction and body shape, size, and color
    p. 85
    • Attraction- matters like for job interviews, dating, and marriage. Impacts persuasion, attitude change, and perceived credibility.
    • Body shape, size, and color - soft and round=easygoing, happy, good-natured.
    • Tall, thin, fragile=more tense/nervous/conscientious/meticulous
    • Strong, muscular, athletic=adventurous, mature, and self-reliant
  15. Haptics (touch)
    one of the most basic form of communication and the one we learn first.
    • Most regulated of our nonverbal behaviors through cultural and family norms then rules of tough behaviors.
    • 1. functional/professional touch-hair stylist, chiropractor, or physician
    • 2. Social/polite touch-shake hands
    • 3. Friendship/warmth touch- hug/kiss a dear friend we have not seen for a while
    • 4. love/intimacy touch - withing our most personal and meaningful relationships
  16. Proxemics
    • Study of space - environmental factors
    • lighting
    • noise
    • color/decor
    • design
    • temperature
    • clutter
  17. Halls' Zones of personal space - types of Haptics
    p. 87
    • Intimate Space - 0 to 18"
    • Personal Space - 18" to 4'
    • Social Space - 4' to 12'
    • Public Space - 12' +
  18. Types of touch (4)
    p. 85-87
    • love/intimacy
    • friendship/warmth
    • social/polite
    • functional/professional
  19. Paralanguage (Vocalics)
    • how we communicate without the use of words - 
    • Pitch        laughing
    • Rate        crying
    • volumn    screaming
    • Pacing     burping
  20. Disfluencies
    • Filler sounds and words
    • uh
    • um
    • so
    • ok
    • like
    • you know
  21. Silence
    • show displeasure - "silent treatment"
    • accept by non-action
    • offer support
    • show emotions
  22. Artifacts
    • clothing
    •    clothing is related to personality - people    who are clothing consciousness - are more    guarded, inhibited, and compliant when    confronted with authority figures.
    • hairstyle
    • makeup
    • tattoos
    • jewelry
    • decorations
  23. Olfactics
    • memory
    • attraction
    • taste
    • aroma therapy - sense of smell is the most    acute at producing past memories
    • advertising
  24. Chronemics
    p. 90-91
    • study of time
    • 1. late vs early vs on time
    • 2. formal vs informal
  25. Gender, Cultural Components - differences between men/women 
    • distance men/distance; women/closer
    • eye contact men/less; women/more
    • expressions men/less emotion; women/more
    • use of space men/more; women/less
    • touch 
    • clothing men/loose/comfortable; women/formfitting/constraining
  26. High-contact cultures
    • cultures that engage in communication that encourages interaction, physical proximity, large gestures, and warm greetings
    • (Arab, Latin Amer, Mediterranean)
  27. Low-contact cultures
    p. 93
    • Cultures that maintain more distance, use smaller gestures, and more formal greetings
    • (American, German, Scandinavian)
  28. Communication "Immediacy"
    p. 93
    Behaviors such as direct eye contact, smiling and facing the other person directly, and using vocal variety.
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Ch 5
2015-04-12 16:31:50
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