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incongruent-nonverbal cues do not match your verbal cues. ex:"I hate you," said with a joking voice
- A broad range of messages communicated through the human body, including the eyes, face, gestures, and posture.
- Such as: adaptors and regulators
A wide range of movements that are intended to hide or "manage" emotions that we do not want to communicate directly. ex: self-adaptors & object-adaptors
The ways in which we manipulate our body, such as chewing nails, twisting hair, cracking knuckles, or biting the inside of our cheeks. When we experience anxiety, stress, uncertainty, or other negative feelings, we use adaptors to help us reduce these feelings.
When we use objects such as a pen or pencil, or glassses, or cigarette to hide or "manage" emotions that we do not want to communicate directly. Used as stress reducers.
Cues on taking turns in conversations - looking for a response when we are done speaking.
7 human emotions using facial expression
- sad, happy, anger, fear, surprise,disgust, and a anger
- verbal connumication is the "content" of the message, while nonverbal communication is the "relationship"
- eye contact establishes a relationship
Nonverbal communication modifies verbal communication in 4 ways
- 1. complement or clarify (congruence)
- 2. to contradict (incongruence)
- 3. to repeat or reinforce
- 4. to substitute for verbal messages
When verbal and nonverbal messages match in meaning
To repeat or reinforce verbal messages
Ex: When you nod your head while saying "yes," your nonverbal message reinforces your verbal message
To substitute for verbal messages
When you nod your head instead of saying "yes," your nonverbal message serves as a substitute for a verbal message.
Identify the 7 human emotions sadness, happiness, anger, fear, surprise, disgust, and anger
Kinesics - Study of the body and face through emblems vs illustrators.
- Emblems are non-verbal cues. ex nodding yes, thumbs up gesture, etc
- Illustrators are using gestures while speaking
Physical characteristics like attraction and body shape, size, and color
- Attraction- matters like for job interviews, dating, and marriage. Impacts persuasion, attitude change, and perceived credibility.
- Body shape, size, and color - soft and round=easygoing, happy, good-natured.
- Tall, thin, fragile=more tense/nervous/conscientious/meticulous
- Strong, muscular, athletic=adventurous, mature, and self-reliant
one of the most basic form of communication and the one we learn first.
- Most regulated of our nonverbal behaviors through cultural and family norms then rules of tough behaviors.
- 1. functional/professional touch-hair stylist, chiropractor, or physician
- 2. Social/polite touch-shake hands
- 3. Friendship/warmth touch- hug/kiss a dear friend we have not seen for a while
- 4. love/intimacy touch - withing our most personal and meaningful relationships
- Study of space - environmental factors
Halls' Zones of personal space - types of Haptics
- Intimate Space - 0 to 18"
- Personal Space - 18" to 4'
- Social Space - 4' to 12'
- Public Space - 12' +
Types of touch (4)
- how we communicate without the use of words -
- Pitch laughing
- Rate crying
- volumn screaming
- Pacing burping
- Filler sounds and words
- you know
- show displeasure - "silent treatment"
- accept by non-action
- offer support
- show emotions
- clothing is related to personality - people who are clothing consciousness - are more guarded, inhibited, and compliant when confronted with authority figures.
- aroma therapy - sense of smell is the most acute at producing past memories
- study of time
- 1. late vs early vs on time
- 2. formal vs informal
Gender, Cultural Components - differences between men/women
- distance men/distance; women/closer
- eye contact men/less; women/more
- expressions men/less emotion; women/more
- use of space men/more; women/less
- clothing men/loose/comfortable; women/formfitting/constraining
- cultures that engage in communication that encourages interaction, physical proximity, large gestures, and warm greetings
- (Arab, Latin Amer, Mediterranean)
- Cultures that maintain more distance, use smaller gestures, and more formal greetings
- (American, German, Scandinavian)
Behaviors such as direct eye contact, smiling and facing the other person directly, and using vocal variety.