Science Revision YEAR 9.txt

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DC11
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Science Revision YEAR 9.txt
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2015-04-19 07:31:59
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year 9 science
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  1. 3 ways to describe a solid?
    • 1.The particles are arranged in regular patterns
    • 2.They are held tightly together and cannot move
    • 3.They move back and forward
  2. 3 ways to describe a LIQUID?
    • 1.Particles arranged together, but not in a regular way
    • 2.The particles are not so tightly held together as solids
    • 3.The particles are able to flow and change places freely
  3. 3 ways to describe a GAS?
    • 1. Particles are far apart from each other
    • 2. They are not arranged in any particular way
    • 3. Weak forces holding them together
  4. What is dissolving?
    It is the change when a solid mixes with a liquid to make a transparent solution
  5. Why is dissolving useful?
    In your blood, it carries food particles dissolved in it to all parts of your body.
  6. What happens to solubility when a solution is heated up?
    Solubility increases
  7. What is the name for substances that dissolve?
    Soluble
  8. What is the name for substances that can't dissolve?
    Insoluble
  9. What is a solution?
    A solution is a mixture (for example) of salt and water is clear, you cannot see the salt. It has dissolved.
  10. Solute?
    The solid that dissolves in a liquid to form a solution
  11. Solvent?
    The liquid in which the solute dissolves in
  12. What can dissolving be speeded up by?
    • Stirring
    • Warm water
    • Small particles
  13. What is solubility?
    A measure of how much solute will dissolve in a set amount of solvent at a set temperature.
  14. What is a saturated solution?
    A saturated solution is a solution in which the solvent cannot dissolve any more solute to increase the concentration of the solution.
  15. What are seperation techniques?
    Processes used by scientists to obtain pure substances or to isolate them from other substances.
  16. What is a mixture?
    A mixture is made from different substances that are not chemically joined together.
  17. What is a compound?
    In a compound, two or more different elements are joined together chemically
  18. What is an atom?
    They are the simplest form of molecule. Made up of neutrons, protons and electrons.
  19. What is a molecule?
    Two or more atoms joined together
  20. What is an element?
    These contain the same type of atom. They cannot be split into simpler substances.
  21. What is the filtrate?
    The clear liquid that runs out of the filter.
  22. What is the residue?
    The solid that is left behind
  23. What is evaporation?
    Evaporation is the process by which water is converted from its liquid form to its vapor form. It is used to seperate a soluble solid from a liquid
  24. What is condensation?
    It is gas turning into liquid, usually as a result of cooling.
  25. What is the name of two liquids that cannot mix?
    Immisicble
  26. What does hydrated mean?
    Chemically combined with water
  27. What is the test to see if something is water?
    Add a few drops of liquid to Dehydrated Copper Sulphate. If it is water it will go from WHITE-BLUE
  28. What happens to Hydrated copper sulphate when heated to remove waste?
    BLUE-WHITE
  29. Examples of substances needing to be seperated for every day life use?
    • Copper- drink cans and pipes
    • Gold and silver- jewellrey and electronic circuits
    • Crude oil- plastic and fuels
  30. What are the main seperation techniques?
    • 1. Evaporation
    • 2. Filtration
    • 3. Crystallisation
    • 4. Distillation
    • 5. Fractional Distillation
    • 6. Chromatography
    • 7. Seperating funnel
  31. What is special about filter paper?
    It has tiny holes in it that lets the liquid through but not the solid particles. It acts like a sieve
  32. What is a suspension?
    It is a mixture in which fine insoluble particles are suspended in a liquid and are held up by buoyancy (the ability to float)
  33. What is the process to obtain pure salt from rock salt?
    Filtration
  34. When would you use Evaporation and Crystallisation?
    When the solid you want to obtain is soluble.
  35. Liquids which do not mix are called Immiscible.
    EG. Oil and vinegar or oil and water
  36. How do you seperate immiscible liquids?
    With a seperating funnel and gradually it will seperate
  37. 3 examples of immiscible liquids?
    • 1. Oil and water
    • 2. Oil and vinegar
    • 3. Lava lamp
  38. What is distillation used for?
    Distillation is used for seperating the solvent from the solution.
  39. How does Distillation work?
    It works by the solvent evaporating, gas hits a condenser and then turns into a liquid.
  40. Examples of when you might use distillation?
    To seperate green colouring from green water
  41. In distillation, which liquid remains in the flask?
    The solvent with the higher boiling point
  42. What is the boiling point of Ethanol?
    78 C
  43. When is Fractional Distillation used?
    It is to seperate liquids if their boiling points are close together
  44. What is the special piece of equiptment used in Fractional Distillation? What does it contain and why?
    A fractionating column is used. It's usually packed with glass beads which increases the speed of condensation of the glasses
  45. What industry uses Fractional Distillation?
    The oil industry (crude oil)
  46. What happens in the fractionating column?
    • The lower boiling point gases rise to the top (eg petrol) and can be extracted. The higher boiling point gases can be extracted at different points on the column.
  47. Who created the Liebig Condenser?
    Justus von Liebig
  48. What is the method to see what pigments are present in different colourings?
    Chromatography
  49. What is the reason substances seperate in Chromatography?
    Each substance travels through the solid at its own pace
  50. What is the function of the Optic Nerve?
    To Transfer visual information to the brain
  51. What is the function of the Iris?
    Controls light levels inside the eye
  52. What is the function of the Cornea?
    It helps shield the eye from germs and other harmful matters
  53. What is the function of the Lens?
    To change the focus of objects that are at different distances
  54. What is the function of the Retina?
    To receive light focused from the lens and convert it into neural signals to the brain
  55. If one substance is more soluble than others in the solution, what happens?
    It will tend to move quickly with the solvent and not stick to the paper until later than the others that are less soluble.
  56. What are the seven components of a balanced diet?
    • Protein
    • Fat
    • Carbohydrates
    • Dietary Fibre
    • Vitamins
    • Minerals
    • Water
  57. What can lack of nutrients lead to?
    Malnutrition and starvation
  58. What is Protein needed for?
    Growth, repair and maintenance of body cells.
  59. What is Fat needed for?
    Energy, protection and insulation
  60. What is Carbs needed for?
    Energy
  61. If you dont take enough vitamins, what could happen?
    • VITAMIN C- scurvy
    • VITAMIN D- rickets
  62. What are minerals needed for?
    component of teeth and bones
  63. What is Malnutrition?
    It is when you do not eat a balanced diet.
  64. What is Dietary Fibre needed for?
    helps food move along digestive system
  65. What is water needed for?
    To keep us hydrated,transporting substances in blood cooling the body and chemical reactions
  66. What is the reagent used for Sugar and what is the colour change?
    Benedicts solution and blue-brick red
  67. What is the reagent used for Starch and what is the colour change?
    Iodine and yellow/brown-blue/black
  68. What is the reagent used for Protein and what is the colour change?
    Buiret and blue-purple
  69. What is the reagent used for Fat and what is the colour change?
    Alchohol and water and clear-milky white emulsion
  70. How many teeth should an adult have?
    32
  71. What are the 3 parts in the structure of the tooth?
    • Enamel
    • Dentine
    • Pulp cavity
  72. What is digestion?
    Digestion is the physical and chemical breakdown of insoluble food into small, soluble molecules so they can be absorbed into the bloodstream
  73. What is the production of energy?
    Respiration
  74. 5 steps of digestion?
    • INGESTION
    • DIGESTION
    • ABSORPTION
    • ASSIMILATION
    • EGESTION
  75. What is Ingestion?
    Taking food into the mouth where it is physically broken down to smaller lumps to be able to swallow it
  76. What is Digestion?
    Digestion is the process of breaking down large insoluble food molecules to soluble molecules, this happens in the mouth, stomach and small intestine
  77. What is Absorption?
    The process by which the soluble products pass across the wall of the small intestine and into the blood
  78. What is Egestion?
    Undigested food is eventually passed out of the body via the anus
  79. Label the diagram of Digestive system.
  80. Why does the stomach lining produce hydrochloric acid?
    Kills bacteria taken in with the food
  81. Waves: what is a transverse wave? Give examples.
    Wave vibrations are at 90 degrees to the direction of the energy of the wave.

    Water and light waves.
  82. Waves: what is a longitudinal wave? Give examples.
    Wave vibrations are in the same direction as the energy of the wave.

    Earthquakes and sound waves.
  83. Waves: what is the amplitude of a wave?
    How "loud" it is. It's half the height from peak to trough.

    Its units are metres.
  84. Waves: what is the frequency of wave? What is it's units?
    The number of waves or vibrations which pass a point in 1 second
  85. Waves: what is meant by the speed of a wave? What is it's units?
    Metres per second
  86. Light and Shadows: Umbra and Penumbra?
    • Umbra:a dark shadow with sharp edges formed by a small light source
    • Penumbra:The fuzzy shadow that surrounds the dark centre.
  87. Reactivity table: List all the metals in order of reactivity?
    • Potassium
    • Sodium
    • Lithium
    • Calcium
    • Magnesium
    • Zinc
    • Iron
    • Lead
    • Copper
    • Silver
    • Gold
  88. Will a high metal on the list react with a compound of a lower metal?
    Yes
  89. Will a low metal on the list react with a compound of a higher metal?
    No

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