EX3 DNA TECHNOLOGY
Card Set Information
EX3 DNA TECHNOLOGY
biol189 ex3 dna
EX 3 DNA technology
Distinguish among recombinant DNA, genetically modified organisms, and transgenic organisms.
: manipulation of
genetic material, even moving genes from one organism to another
: a DNA
molecules that derives from two or more sources
-Genetically modified organism:
organism with one or more genes introduced using DNA technology
: A GMO
which has genes from more than one organism
What is a restriction enzyme? Make sure you understand restriction maps and ‘sticky ends’.
Reaction enzyme: proteins that cleave DNA at restriction sites Sticky Ends: any DNA cut by a particular restriction enzyme can stick to any other cut by the same enzyme
What is a plasmid, where can they come from, and what organisms have them?
A genetic structure in a cell that can replicate independently of the chromosome, typically a small circular DNA strand in the CYTOPLASM of a bacterium
Describe the process of creating a recombinant DNA molecule.
smaller pieces of DNA to wok with restriction enzymes
: gel electrophoresis
a particular sequence in the genome
: nucleic acid probes
many copies of the DNA
: cloning by biological vector or polymerase chain
What is gel electrophoresis, what is its purpose, and how does it work?
Separating molecules by size, charge etc -measures movement based on a standard -placed in gel and move by electrical charge
What are the two ways to clone a gene?
such as bacteria, yeast, cell culture
-gene cleaved out of original genome using a particular
-gene inserted into bacteria plasmid (vector) cut with the
same enzyme to transfer (recombinant DNA) by shaking them together
Polymerase chain reactions (PCR)
-clones of DNA sequence
without a biological vector
Describe how a gene can be cloned in a
engineering plasmid and DNA of interest cut with same restriction enzyme and
mixed together, some combine
is exposed to a biological vector such as yeast or bacteria. Some vectors pick up DNA
vectors are screened to identify those which picked up a plasmid which
contained the DNA of interest
selected vectors are allowed to reproduce making more copies of the DNA of
Describe how the polymerase
chain reaction (PCR) can be used to amplify genes.
PCR produces copies from one sample
sequence of dna to be amplified)
pol (heat-stable version-TAQ Polymerase)
to 95 C, so dna denatures to single strands
primers attach to their complimentary sequence
pol adds nucleotides to finish complimentary strand
rounds yield more copies
What is a nucleic acid probe used to accomplish?
Nucleic acid probe: finding the correct gene
stranded sequence of interest is labeled (dye, radiation)
mixed with the sample, it sticks to its compliment
single stranded sequence
CCGGTTAA PROBE à DNA sequence labeled
Understand how forensic tests and
paternity analyses are based on, and how the chance of mistaken identity error
can be reduced.
highly variable non-coding sequences
radioactive probes used to determine which fragments are present
chance of error
single tandem repeats (STR’s) non-coding DNA more variable than coding DNA
What is a genome?
The study of
species sequenced (mostly prokaryotes)
How is information in the genome
apportioned between coding and non-coding DNA?
Non coding DNA
What are the types of coding and
and regulatory sequence
DNA around centromeres or ends (telomoeres); mostly simple sequence repeats
transposable elements (jumping genes)
What is the biggest reason that
mammalian cloning is difficult?
more complex with approx. 100,000 genes
What is methylation, and what does it do
Passing of a
chemical fragment called methyl group from one molecule to another.
It silences a
Potential exam question: Why is a random mutation
unlikely to affect a protein? Include the approximate percentages for the
categories of DNA discussed in class in your answer.