Philosophy Exam 2

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Philosophy Exam 2
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2015-04-22 20:43:44
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Study material for Philosophy Exam 2
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  1. In the opening scene of Book One of the Republic, what is the conflict about and
    who wins?
    A) Poetry versus philosophy; philosophy wins
    B) Myth versus reason; reason wins
    C) Might versus right (reason); might wins
    D) Achilles versus the tortoise; nobody moves much less wins
    C
  2. What is the secret to a good old age, according to Cephalus?
    A) The control of one's passions through the development of one's character
    B) Only money
    C) Power
    D) B & C
    A
  3. According to the many, what is the secret to a good old age?
    A) The control of one's passions through the development of one's character
    B) Only money
    C) Power
    D) B & C
    B
  4. According to Cephalus, what is the greatest benefit of having money?
    A) Paying back to what one owes to others; and thus justice
    B) The advantage of the stronger
    C) The harmony of the parts
    D) Benefitting those who one believes are one's friends and harming those who one believes are one's enemies
    A
  5. What, according to Polemarchus, is justice?
    A) Paying back to what one owes to others; and thus justice
    B) The advantage of the stronger
    C) The harmony of the parts
    D) Benefitting those who one believes are one's friends and harming those who one believes are one's enemies
    D
  6. What is the difference between belief and knowledge, according to Socrates?
    A) Knowledge wanders whereas belief absolutely stays put, mostly
    B) Belief stays put knowledge whereas knowledge wanders between ignorance and belief
    C) Knowledge stays put whereas belief wanders between knowledge and ignorance
    D) A & C
    C
  7. Who are the sophists and what did the sophists teach in ancient Greece?
    A) self proclaimed "wise men" who taught how to harmonize the soul in accordance with reason
    B) self proclaimed "wise men" who taught how to turn the soul away from becoming and towards Being
    C) self proclaimed "wise men" who taught how to make the weak argument appear strong and the strong argument appear weak
    D) All of the above
    C
  8. What are philosophers, according to Socrates?
    A) wise men
    B) lovers of wisdom
    C) sophists
    D) useless, queer, and vicious men
    B
  9. What, according to Thrasymachus, is justice?
    A) paying back what one owes to others
    B) the advantage of the stronger who serve their self-interest by establishing the laws of a society
    C) the harmony of the parts
    D) benefitting those who one believes are one's friends and harming those who one believes are one's enemies
    B
  10. According to Thrasymachus' discussion of shepherds and their sheep, why are the sheep against injustice?
    A) because they fear that they will become filled with injustice and slaves to their appetites
    B) because they fear suffering the injustices of the stronger
    C) because they possess the knowledge of the Good
    D) all of the above
    B
  11. What, according to Thrasymachus, is prefect injustice?
    A) the secret to the supreme happiness: complete and systematic injustice
    B) the tyrant's prison within himself
    C) injustice in half-measures
    D) A & C
    A
  12. Who, according to Thrasymachus, practices perfect injustice?
    A) the aristocrat
    B) the oligarch
    C) injustice in half-measures
    D) A & C
  13. What, according to Socrates, does Thrasymachus' view of justice require?
    A) The ruler's ability to force the many to obey the laws he establishes
    B) the ruler's knowledge that the laws he establishes will truly benefit him
    C) The ruler's belief that the laws he establishes will truly benefit him
    D) the ruler's ability to trick the many to obey the laws he establishes
    B
  14. In terms of accomplishing one's goals, what is Socrates' objection to Thrasymachus' view that perfect injustice is more profitable than justice?
    A) even thieves must have a code of honor
    B) perfect injustice results in friendship
    C) perfect injustice results in discord and nothing getting accomplished
    D) A & C
    D
  15. How does the Gyges' ring relate to the life and death of Socrates?
    A) Socrates died with the many honoring him for appearing just (while he really practiced a life of injustice)
    B) Socrates died with the many accusing him of appearing unjust (while he really practiced a life of justice)
    C) Socrates died with honor while famously asking that question: "I drank what!?"
    D) Socrates never died because not even death can harm the soul that is just
    B
  16. Socrates responds to the challenge of Gyges' ring by suggesting that we try to define justice for the individual by first looking for what?
    A) justice according to tradition
    B) justice in the soul of the tyrant
    C) justice according the votes of the many
    D) justice in the best city possible
    D
  17. What, according to Glaucon, is the story of Gyges' ring supposed to show us?
    A) that it is better to practice injustice and appear just than it is to practice justice and appear unjust
    B) that by practicing injsutice one's soul is filled with conflict and so becomes a slave to one's appetites and passions
    C) that it is okay to practice injustice so long as you get caught
    D) that it is better to practice justice and appear unjust than it is to practice injustice and appear just
    A
  18. How does the Gyges' ring relate to sophistry?
    A) masters of sophistry often wore such rings in ancient Greece
    B) the author of Lord of the Rings is a second cousin to a sophist
    C) sophistry is the art of hiding one's injustices through persuasive speeches
    D) none of the above
    C
  19. What is Glaucon's objection to the city that Socrates and Adeimantus intially build?
    A) the city lacks the basic necessities like food, shelter, clothing, education, medical care, etc.
    B) the city lacks luxuries like sweet cakes, perfumes, and relish
    C) the city could never exist because human nature is self-interested
    D) A & B
    B
  20. In responding to Glaucon's objection to the city that Socrates and Adeimantus intially build, what does Socrates say that we have found the origin to?
    A) war and the need for a warrior class
    B) Greek salad and the need for a labor class
    C) knowledge of the Good and the need for a ruling class of lovers of wisdom and learning
    D) A & C
    A
  21. According to Socrates, if the second class of people introduced to the best city possible are to serve their proper function well, then what sort of nature must their souls have?
    A) spirited
    B) appetitive
    C) philosophical
    D) A & C
    D
  22. According to Socrates, if warriors are to serve their proper function, then they must identify their own happiness of what?
    A) the happiness of the labor class
    B) the happiness of the philosopher kings
    C) the happiness of the majority
    D) the happiness and unity of the whole
    D
  23. What, according to Socrates, justifies including the "noble lie" in the basic education of the best city possible?
    A) the happiness of the labor class
    B) the happiness of the philosopher kings
    C) the happiness of the majority
    D) the happiness and unity of the whole
    D
  24. According to the "noble lie," what metals are respectively mixed with the souls of the rulers, warriors, and laborers of the city?
    A) gold, bronze, and silver and iron
    B) gold, silver, and iron and bronze
    C) silver, gold, and iron and bronze
    D) bronze, silver, and gold and iron
    B
  25. According to Socrates, if the warrior class is to serve its proper function well, then why can they not possess private property or touch gold or silver?
    A) the goods of private property compete with the good of the city as a whole, and produce competition, crime, and conflict within the city
    B) the goods of private property promote the good of the city as a whole rather than the good specific to one of its parts
    C) the goods of private property threaten the city's unity
    D) A & C
    D
  26. According to Socrates, if warriors are to serve their function in the city, then why must their education involve censuring the mimetic art form?
    A) because this art form teaches one to take pleasure in appearance and imitation rather than in what is real
    B) because this art form teaches one to take pleasure in appearing to do many things rather than in actually doing one thing well
    C) because this art form teaches one to take pleasure in wanting to be what one is not
    D) all of the above
    D
  27. What is virtue, according to Socrates?
    A) that which helps something to fulfill its proper function well
    B) the opposite of vice
    C) that which prevents something from fulfilling its proper function well
    D) A & C
    A
  28. What is vice, according to Socrates?
    A) that which helps something to fulfill its proper function well
    B) the opposite of vice
    C) that which prevents something from fulfilling its proper function well
    D) A & C
    C
  29. According to Socrates, what is the proper function that is unique to a human being?
    A) to live well according to one's appetites
    B) to live well according to one's spirtedness
    C) to live well well according to one's reason
    D) never to be born or to die as soon as possible
    C
  30. What are the four cardinal virtues?
    A) wisdom, wit, moderation, justice
    B) wisdom, courage, moderation, power
    C) wisdom, courage, money, justice
    D) none of the above
    D
  31. What, according to Socrates, is moderation?
    A) dong what is necessary for preserving the laws and the good of the city
    B) nothing in excess; such as pretending to be what one is not or wanting more than what is necessary
    C) the harmony of the parts from each part minding its own business and serving its proper function well
    D) none of the above
    B
  32. What according to Socrates, is courage?
    A) doing what is necessary for preserving the laws and the good of the city
    B) nothing in excess; such as pretending to be what one is not or wanting more than what is necessary
    C) the harmony of the parts from each part minding its own business and serving its proper function well
    D) none of the above
    A
  33. In which of the three parts of the tr-partite soul is moderation to be found?
    A) the rational, calculating part
    B) the spirited part
    C) the appetitive part
    D) all of the above
    D
  34. In which of the three parts of the best city possible is moderation found?
    A) the ruling class
    B) the warrior class
    C) the labor class
    D) all of the above
    D
  35. According to Socrates, what is justice in the best city possible?
    A) the advantage of the warrior group by its doing whatever it wants
    B) the advantage of the majority by doing whatever it wants
    C) the advantage of the whole by each of its parts serving its proper function well
    D) the advantage of the tyrant by his doing whatever he wants
    C
  36. According to Socrates, what is injustice in the soul of the individual?
    A) harmony of the whole
    B) rebellion of one part of the soul against the others
    C) music to one's ears
    D) health and true human flourishing
    B
  37. In order to show that the best city is possible, what are the three waves of laughter that Socrates must first overcome?
    A) equality of the sexes, the common sharing of wives and children, and philosopher kings
    B) patriarchy, preferential love, and the tyranny of the majority
    C) that everything is for sale including sex, wives, children, justice, etc.
    D) A & C
    A
  38. What is the main reason that Socrates offers to overcome all three waves laughter?
    A) the happiness of philosopher kings who want nothing more than to rule over the many
    B) the happiness of the warrior class for without whom the city could not exist
    C) the happiness of the labor class for without whom the city could exist
    D) the happiness and unity of the city as a whole over and against the exceptional happiness of any one of its parts
    D
  39. If it is possible at all in Plato's ideal city, then when can a person who is born into the labor class move into the warrior or ruling class?
    A) class mobility is not possible in the ideal city since it is a communist rather than capitalist society
    B) when a person learns to pretend well at being a public servant
    C) when a person has sufficient money to bribe those in power
    D) when a person's natural ability merits the move and so best serves the city as a whole
    D
  40. In Socrates' ship analogy, who appears to the many as the most useful person on the ship?
    A) the person who by persuasion or force sails the ship
    B) the person who with knowledge of sailing sails of the ship
    C) the majority who by voting sail the ship
    D) the person who by courage sails the ship
    A
  41. While everyone agrees that justice requires knowledge of the Good, why cant Socrates just tell us what the Good is?
    A) because we think the shadows of things are more real than what causes them
    B) because we are stuck in the cave and must first turn from Becoming toward Being
    C) because we believe more in the many beautiful things we see than in the one idea of beauty itself
    D) all of the above
    D
  42. According to Socrates, while all of the other senses require only two things in order to sense something, what third thing do the eyes require in order to sense their object?
    A) something to see
    B) light to illuminate what the eyes see
    C) something to see with
    D) the eyes dont require a third thing but are just like the other senses
    B
  43. How does Plato's sun analogy continue to this day to influence the way we express what is intelligible to us?
    A) we express our knowledge in terms of seeing. "See what I mean?"
    B) we express our knowledge in terms of astrology
    C) we express our knowledge in terms of spelunking
    D) we express our knowledge by saying: "I can dig it"
    A
  44. According to Plato's theory of the forms (as expressed in the simile of the line), which of the following does not explain why Plato thinks that ideas have more reality than physical objects?
    A) you can touch physical objects whereas you cannot touch ideas
    B) even after you destroy a physical object its idea endures
    C) you must have an idea of a table before you can make an actual table
    D) you must first have an idea of a table to have an intelligible experience of a table
    A
  45. In Plato's allegory of the cave, what do the shadow's on the cave's walls represent?
    A) the images and values created for the many by the poets and the law makers
    B) the opinions and beliefs of poets and law makers
    C) the knowledge of actual objects
    D) the cause of knowledge itself, the Form of all forms
    A
  46. In Plato's allegory of the cave, what do the objects used to cast images on the cave's wall represent?
    A) the images and values the poets and the law makers create in order to control the many
    B) the opinions and beliefs of poets and law makers
    C) the knowledge of the ideas that make actual objects intelligible
    D) the cause of knowledge itself, the Form of all forms
    B
  47. In Plato's allegory of the cave, what do the objects illuminated by the sun represent?
    A) the images and values created for the many by the poets and the law makers
    B) the opinions and beliefs of poets and law makers
    C) the knowledge of the ideas that make actual objects intelligible to us
    D) the cause of the knowledge itself, the Form of all forms
    C
  48. In Plato's allegory of the cave, what does the sun represent?
    A) the images created for the many by the poet's and law makers
    B) the opinions and beliefs of poets and law makers
    C) the knowledge of the ideas that make actual objects intelligible 
    D) the cause of knowledge, the Form of all forms, the Good itself
    D
  49. Socrates tell us that the philosopher's knowledge of the Good does not motivate her to "mind the business of human beings" and return to help the prisoners and the city. Why, then, does Socrates think the philosopher must return to rule the city and help other by ruling?
    A) because philosophers are useless, queer, and vicious
    B) because philosopher kings will best serve the good of the city as a unified whole
    C) because the price of not ruling is being ruled by worse men
    D) B & C
    D
  50. According to the allegory of the cave, the purpose of education is not to provide new information or knowledge (since the truth is eternal) but rather the purpose of education is:
    A) to get a degree and make money so one can then earn the basic necessities for survival
    B) to turn one's soul away from the Being of what is and towards the ever-changing and fading realm of becoming
    C) as easy as putting on a sock
    D) to turn one's soul away from the ever-changing and fading realm of becoming towards the Being of what is
    D
  51. What, according to Socrates are the five political regimes from best to worst?
    A) democracy, oligarchy, timocracy, tyranny, aristocracy
    B) aristocracy, democracy, oligarchy, timocracy, tyranny
    C) aristocracy, timocracy, oligarchy, tyranny, democracy
    D) aristocracy, timocracy, oligarchy, democracy, tyranny
    D
  52. What part of the tri-partie soul dominates in a democracy?
    A) reason
    B) spirit
    C) appetites
    D) none of the above
    C
  53. What part of the tri-partie soul dominates in a timocracy?
    A) reason
    B) spirit
    C) appetites
    D) none of the above
    B
  54. What part of the tri-partie soul dominates in a tyranny?
    A) reason
    B) spirit
    C) appetites
    D) none of the above
    C
  55. According to Socrates, why is getting caught the best thing that can happen to one that uses the Gyges' ring (that is, for example, to the one who cheats on an exam while pretending to be a real student)?
    A) because if this person is caught, then it will cause a distraction allowing others to practice injustice
    B) because if this person is caught, then there is less chance that such a person will enslave us
    C) because if this person is caught, then there is less chance that such a person will enslave him or herself
    D) because if this person is caught, then there will be one less student in our overpopulated class
    C
  56. According to the ancients, if one cannot rule oneself, then the what is the best thing for such a person?
    A) to be ruled by their desires
    B) to be ruled by those who rule themselves in accordance with reason
    C) to be ruled by their spirit
    D) to be ruled by the tyranny of the majority
    B
  57. According to Socrates, why do the pleasures of the tyrant always lead to dissatisfaction and conflict?
    A) because these are pleasure of the intellect, which direct us to the eternal and unchanging Being of the forms
    B) because these are pleasures of honor and victory, which depend on the changing beliefs and opinions of the many
    C) because these are the pleasures of the appetites, which direct us to the ever-changing and fading realm of becoming
    D) A & C
    C
  58. According to Socrates, why do the pleasures of the philosopher never fade?
    A) because these are pleasure of the intellect, which direct us to the eternal and unchanging Being of the forms
    B) because these are pleasures of honor and victory, which depend on the changing beliefs and opinions of the many
    C) because these are the pleasures of the appetites, which direct us to the ever-changing and fading realm of becoming
    D) A & C
    A
  59. Regarding their truth and reality from greatest to least, how would Plato list the following?
    A) a painting of a couch, the idea of a couch, an actual couch
    B) the idea of a couch, the actual couch, the painting of a couch
    C) an actual couch, the painting of a couch, the idea of a couch
    D) an actual couch, the idea of a couch, the painting of a couch
    B
  60. According to Socrates' view of love as the desire to possess forever that which one loves, what follows regarding the true idea of love?
    A) it follows that love itself is both beautiful and  good
    B) it follows that love is both ugly and bad
    C) it follows that love is the longing for immortality and the eternal
    D) it follows that love is blind
    C

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