Philosophy Exam 3 Questions

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Philosophy Exam 3 Questions
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Flashcards for Philosophy Exam 3
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  1. What are the two charges for which the Athenian democracy executed Socrates?
    A) Corrupting the minds of the youth and prostitution
    B) Going against the gods and treachery
    C) Corrupting the minds of the youth and going against the gods
    D) None of the above
    C
  2. The name of the university that opened after Socrates' death was The Academy. True or False?
    True
  3. Who was Plato's star pupil at his university?
    A) Aristotle
    B) Plato
    C) Cephalus
    D) Thales
    A
  4. The difference that Raphael's painting The School of Athens draws between Plato and his star student is Aristotle with his hand up believed that the idea of something was more real than the thing itself while Plato with his hand down believed that the physical object is more real than the idea. True or False?
    • False
    • Correct Answer:
    • Aristotle= physical
    • Plato= idea
  5. Explain Aristotle's four causes and his concepts of potentiality and actuality (as applied to a statue, a knife, a rock, fire, a tad pole, an acorn, a human being). What explanatory power regarding the physical world does this account give Aristotle's philosophy over Plato's?
    A) Four causes: needs, reasons, rules, and power. A statue has the potential to become anything artistic but the actuality of the statue is that it is a work of art. Explanatory power regarding the physical world is the actuality is more real than the potentiality of the idealistic world.
    B) There are no four causes of understanding just one which is the one. Explanatory power regarding the physical world is the actuality is less real than the poential of the idealistic world.
    C) None of the above
    D) Four causes: material (what it's made of), formal (what are its essential features), efficient (who made it), and final (its purpose, function, its Telos). Explanatory power regarding the physical world is the actuality is more real than the potential of the idealistic world.
    D
  6. The guiding question that continues from the ancient through the medieval period is How ought I live? What is the secret? True or False?
    True
  7. What is the Epicureans' answer to this question?
    A) The secret is to pursue higher pleasures in moderation
    B) The secret is happiness is secured the less we depend on anything outside of us (things are not good in themselves but it's our judgement of them that makes them so.) [Ascetism]
    C) The secret is happiness but because nature is indeterminable, happiness is best secured by suspending judgement
    D) None of the above
    A
  8. The Stoics' answer to this question is happiness but because nature is indeterminable, happiness is best secured by suspending judgement. True or False?
    If false, what are supporting reasons for the answer provided?
    • False
    • Correct Answer: The secret is happiness is secured the less we depend on anything outside of us
    • Supporting Reason: Ascetism (things are not good in themselves but it's out judgement of them that makes them so.)
  9. What is the Skeptic's answer to this question? What are some supporting reasons for this answer?
    A) The secret is happiness is to pursue higher pleasures in moderation. Golden Rule
    B) The secret is happiness is secured the less we depend on anything outside of us. Ascetism (things are not good in themselves but it's our judgement of them that makes them so)
    C) The secret is happiness but because nature is indeterminable, happiness is best secured best by suspending judgement. (position that denies our ability our to have objective knowledge of the world) [If we seek knowledge, then we will be in Doubt, and so unhappy]
    D) Unknown. Still working on it.
    • C
    • *Definition of skepticism is in parentheses
  10. The problem of evil that St. Augstine (354-430AD) tries to solve is the problem with evil such as Why would God allow evil in the world? True or False?
    True
  11. What is St. Anselm's (1033-1109AD) two premise argument for the conclusion that God exists?
    A) If god is the greatest conceivable being possible, then God exists and is the greatest conceivable being
    B) Skepticism and Epicurism
    C) Stoicism and Skepticism
    D) Golden Rule and Telos
    A
  12. According to the Christian theologians and philosophers, we must first have reason in order to understand the true nature of reality. True or false?
    • False:
    • Correct Answer: between faith and reason, we must first have faith in order to have understanding of the true nature of reality
  13. For what reason does Dante in his work Divine Comedy (1320) place the virtuous pagan philosophers of ancient Greece in the first circle of hell?
    A) To entertain the audience
    B) To display how desires consume humans
    C) The virtuous pagan philosophers like Aristotle had no faith and therefore can not understand the true nature of reality
    D) The virtuous pagans were right about God
    C
  14. How Christian cosmology and telelogy order to make sense of the natural world and our place in it is by determining the natural and moral world is structured by cosmologically Heaven is above us, We are in the middle of Heaven and Hell, and Hell is below us. Theologically, do good according to God=Heaven, do bad according to God=Hell. True or False?
    True
  15. What are the two major problems (both within and outside of the Christian doctrine and its cosmology) that usher in the move from the medieval to the modern period; and who are some of the major players in this critical shift?
    A) Descartes' Mediatations and Immanuel Kant's Law of Morality
    B) Epicurism and Skepticism. Aristotle and Plato
    C) Triple Threat (Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo) [Heliocentric model and retrograde planets] and Corruption in the Church (Martin Luther) [Indulgences=charges for salvation]
    D) None of the above
    C
  16. The guiding question of modernity that serves to distinguish it from the ancient and medieval periods is How ought I live. True or False?
    • False:
    • Correct Answer: The guiding question of modernity that serves to distinguish it from the ancient and medieval periods is What can I know. (Epistemological)
  17. What is rationalism? What is empiricism? What is skepticism? And to which camp does Decartes belong?
    A) Rationalism is knowledge through reason. Empiricism is knowledge through ideas. Skepticism is knowledge of the unknown. Decartes is a skeptic.
    B) Rationalism is knowledge through reason. Empiricism is knowledge through senses. Skepticism is the view that we cannot have indubitable knowledge about anything. Decartes is a realist.
    C) Rationalism is knowledge through the senses. Empiricism is knowledge through reason. Skepticism is knowledge of opinions. Decartes is a empircist.
    D) None of the above
    B
  18. Decartes' method of radical doubt is if a claim can in anyway be doubted, then it can't serve as foundation. The ultimate purpose of his method of radical doubt is to find an inducitable foundation of knowledge. True or False?
    True
  19. Can the following, according to Descartes, ever be doubted: sense experience; Im not dreaming right now; mathematical truths (while dreaming; vis-a-vis the evil demon deceiver); I am thinking, thus I exist (vis-a-vis the evil demon deciever)? Explain D's supporting reasons for each.
    A) No. An evil demon is decieving us in everything we do.
    B) Cogito ergo sum (I am thikning therefore I am) can not be doubted ever; since even if I am thinking an evil demon is decieving me, this necessarily presupposes that I am thinking. Sense experience; can be doubted because of mirages. Immdeiate experience since an evil demon could be deceiving me to believe that I am dreaming. Mathematical truths since an evil demon could be decieving me that 2+2=4
    C) Cogito ergo sum (I am thinking therefore I am) is the only thing that can be doubted since an evil demon could be decieving me. Sense experience, mathematical truths, and immediate experience can not be doubted because we are unaffected by the evil demon's deception.
    D) Everything can not be doubted because reality can never be distorted by an evil demon.
    B
  20. According to Descartes, the indubitable foundation of knowledge does not exist because we are always being deceived by an evil demon to believe everything we do is real and true. True or False?
    • False:
    • Correct Answer: The indubitable foundation of knowledge is thoughts or cogito ergo sum (I think, therefore I am) since even if an evil demon is decieving us presupposes that I am thinking.
  21. What problem does Descartes' indubitable foundation for knowledge first land him in?
    A) Skepticism; that is, the view that we cannot have indubitable knowledge about anything
    B) Stoicism; that is, the view that things are not objectively good or bad in themselves but that it is our judgement of things that makes them good or bad.
    C) Solipsism; that is, the view that I can objectively know nothing of the world outside of my own subjective experience
    D) None of the above
    C
  22. What Descartes tries to prove in order to get out of this problem is the idea of God as infinite and omnibenevolent is something we finite beings could not have made up but which must instead have its source in an infinite and omnibenevolent being. What eminent reality has to do with Descartes solution is that eminent reality is the source of x must have a greater reality than x. True or False?
    True
  23. What is it about external, material objects that allow us to have, according to Descartes, distinct and indubitable knowledge about them?
    A) External, material objects allow us to have distinct and indubitable knowledge about them by their origin
    B) External, material objects allow us to have distinct and indubitable knowledge about them by the evil demon deciever
    C) External, material objects allow us to have distinct and indubitable knowledge about them by the object cant be known via senses (which change), but the object can be known only via what remains throughout the change being the extension of the body that we account for with Geometry
    D) None of the above
    C
  24. Hume is a rationalist like Descartes. True or False?
    • False:
    • Correct Answer: Hume is a empiricist.
  25. What is Hume's Fork and what problem does it lead?
    A) Rationalism and empiricism. The denial of knowledge.
    B) Satan and God. The denial of an eminent reality
    C) Senses and Thoughts. The acceptance of the evil demon theory
    D) Analytic and Synthetic. The denial of knowledge.
    D
  26. According to Hume, the pros and cons for analytic truths in contrast to the pros and cons of synthetic truths are analytic truths are always true but no new knowledge is obtained by this truth while synthetic truths are con of such things but new knowledge is obtained by this truth. True or False?
    True
  27. According to Hume, if an idea is to amount to more than mere non-sense, then what must we trace the idea back to? What ideas fail to satisfy this demand? As good empiricists, what must we do with such ideas?
    A) We trace the idea back to sense experience. Synthetic a priori truths fail to satisfy this demand. As good empiricists we must get rid of synthetic truths because it is nonsense.
    B) We trace the idea back to immediate experience. A priori truths fail to satisfy this demand. As good empiricists we must keep a priori truths.
    C) We trace the idea back to immediate experience. A priori truths fail to satisfy this demand. As good empiricists we must get rid of a priori truths because it is nonsense.
    D) None of the above
    A
  28. The best philosophical method that solves the crisis of modernity inherited from the medieval period would be Descartes' method since because of him we are aware of an indubitable foundation of knowledge being our thoughts. True or False?
    • False:
    • Correct Answer: Neither Descartes' or Hume's method solves the crisis of modernity because Descartes' problem is his method gets him trap in solipsism while Hume's problem is his method traps him in skepticism.
  29. Why, according to Kant, can Hume not trace time, space, and the necessary connection in causality back to sense experience?
    A) Because time, space, and the necessary connection in causality are the necessary elements for science and without them we are not able to experience the world as we do.
    B) Because time, space, and the necessary connection in causality are not the necessary elements in order to experience the world as we do.
    C) Because time, space, and the necessary connection in causality are contaminated by the evil demon deceiver.
    D) None of the above
    A
  30. Kant believes there first needs to be a metaphysics of nature in order for us to study and have knowledge about the physics of nature so we can verify what physics requires but can't verify in itself. True or False?
    True
  31. What is shallow realism and why does Kant think it cannot be right?
    A) Shallow Realism is there is more than meets the eye. Kant believes this can not be so since it should only see what you get.
    B) Shallow Realism is there is an evil demon in all of us. Kant does not believes this because it is a trap of solipsism
    C) Shallow Realism is what you see is what you get. Kant does not believe this because everything has potential to become something based on its Telos in the universe.
    D) None of the above
    C
  32. Kant's "Copernican Turn" in philosophy is Shallow Realism where what you see is what you get. True of False?
    • False:
    • Correct Answer: Kant's "Copernican Turn" in philosophy is Transcendental Idealism where it argues back to the conditions for the possibility of experience
  33. What is the difference between phenomena and noumena?
    A) Phenomena is the world as it is for us, and noumena is the spiritual realm
    B) Phenomena is the world of greek myths, and noumena is the reason principle in the world
    C) Phenomena is the world as it is for us, and noumena is the world as it is in-itself
    D) None of the above
    C
  34. The three conditions that provide, according to Kant, the limits within which we can have knowledge is time, space, and causality. True or False?
    True
  35. According to Kant, can we have knowledge about God's existence and plan for us? Explain your answer in terms of the three conditions that provide the limits within which we can have knowledge.
    A) Yes, God combats the evil demon deciever making us self-aware of our actions
    B) Yes, God is a being beyond space, time, and causality
    C) No, God is a being beyond space, time, and causality
    D) None of the above
    C
  36. According to Kant, the only thing that is good-in-itself and has absolute worth without limtation (that is regardless of what we can get out of it or what results from it) is casuality. The two reasons Kant offers to support this evaluation is because without you can still have those goods and use them for bad things. Also, humans should act on their maxims that can be made into universal law maxim. True or False?
    • False:
    • Correct Answer: The only thing that is good-in-itself is the goodwill. The reasons are correct.
  37. The Catholic Church defended itself against Luther's "ninety-five theses" by:
    A) appealing to Aristotle's function argument
    B) appealing to Plato's "Myth of the Cave"
    C) opening the Academy
    D) appealing to the Holy Bible
    D
  38. What rule guides Hume's method?
    A) that we rationally contribute necessary casual connections to our sense experience
    B) that all meaningful, non-fictional ideas must be traced back to sense impressions
    C) that it is reason alone that must serve as the foundation for human knowledge
    D) A & B
    B
  39. According to Kant, while we can have objective knowledge, to what must this knowledge be limited?
    A) the phenomenal world (that is, the world as it is in itself independent of us)
    B) the phenomenal world (that is, not the world as it is in itself but the world only as it is for us as conditioned by the a priori conditions of time, space, and causality)
    C) the noumenal world (that is, not the world as it is in itself but the world only as it is for us as conditoned by the synthetic a priori conditions of time, space, and causality)
    D) the noumenal world (that is, the world as it is in itself independent of us)
    B
  40. Because the moral law demands necessity and universality, according to Kant, it follows that what counts as good must be determined by:
    A) reason alone, which is the only thing that can give us a priori truths
    B) the contingent facts of sense experience that give us only a posteriori truths (for example, utilitarian claims about the future consequences of our actions)
    C) Kant does not think the moral law demands necessity and universality
    D) an elite group of intellectuals who must guide those chained by their self-imposed inability to think critically
    A
  41. Which of the following correctly expresses the rational principle, the categorical imperative, of Kant's moral philosophy? 
    A) act only on those maxims that tend to produce the greatest happiness for the greater numbers
    B) act only on those maxims that the virtuous man would act upon
    C) act only on those maxims that can at the same time be willed into a universal law of nature without contradiction
    D) act only on those maxims that can most of the time be willed into a universal law of nature provided it serves one's personal inclinations and self-interest
    C
  42. According to Kant, if I apply the categorical imperative and universalize into a law of nature my maxim: "I ought to make a false promise," then I produce...
    A) a maxim capable of being willed into a universal moral law without rational contradiction
    B) a world where rational beings make promises
    C) a world where rational beings accept promises
    D) a rational contradiction
    D
  43. According to Kant, if one acts merely in order to obey the commands of God, then...
    A) One acts rationally, autonomously, and thus morally
    B) One acts neither rationally nor autonomously, and thus one does not act morally
    C) One acts rationally, autonomously, but not morally
    D) all of the above
    B
  44. According to Kant, why cant hypothetical imperatives--such as: "I ought to heat water" if I want to have coffee or "I ought not to murder my neighbor" if I want to obey God--serve as a moral law and test for the moral worth of our actions?
    A) because hypothetical imperatives are about actions that are necessarily good in themselves and not contingent upon my wanting something or not
    B) because hypothetical imperatives are about actions that are not good in themselves but whose goodness is contingent upon my wanting or needing something external to me
    C) because hypothetical imperatives are about actions that are not good in themselves but whose goodness is contingent upon some purpose external to the rational being who wills the action
    D) B & C
    D
  45. According to Kant, morality is:
    A) relative to each individual
    B) rational and thus universal for all rational beings
    C) relative to each culture
    D) all of the above
    B
  46. According to Kant, what is the kingdom of ends?
    A) a society in which everyone treats another as merely a means to an end
    B) a society in which everyone treats one another as not having absolute worth in themselves
    C) a society in which everyone treats one another as not free to decide their own ends 
    D) none of the above
    D

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