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- It is produced during glycolysis
- It INHIBITS Substrate supply for TCA cycle
- Also INHIBITS the glucose pathway itself
ATP synthesis as regulator
- It is synthesized until not needed anymore, then can act as its own regulator (with PFK for example) to slow down the processes of ATP production.
- With PFK, if there is a lot of ATP, PFK becomes a HIGH Km enzyme, and glycolysis does not occur…glucose is utilized for storage or other things, not ATP production since it is Not needed
Ca role in affecting ATP efficiency (to ADD to EXAM 4 Question got WRONG)
- Ca2+ ACTIVATES uncoupling proteins: this activation GENERATES HEAT
- Ca also BINDS to uniport: TRANSFERRING Ca into the mitochondria to ACTIVATE Metabolic PATHWAY ENZYMES to speed them up
Affect on efficiency with More Mitochondria (2x as normal) vs LDH
With double the mitochondria than normal, you can produce 1/2 products per mitochondria in order to get the same amt as with 1 mitochondria…therefore: You avoid TOXIC radical production by working HALF as MUCH (compared to if you had 1x mitochondria vs 2x).
6 pathways for ATP/Acetyl CoA production for energy
- Glycolytic pathway: produces ATP, NADH and Acetyl CoA + e-s,
- Oxidative Phosphorylation (TCA and ETC)
- MYOKINASE (MK)
- CREATINEphosphoKINASE (CPK)
Glycolytic pathway products and regulators:
- produces: ATP, NADH and Acetyl CoA + e-s,
- Regulators: ATP, when HIGH levels, causes less production of glycolysis. AMP, when HIGH levels, cause high activity of this pathway. Ca2+, when HIGH levels, have HIGH ACTIVITY of this pathway also
Myokinase products and activity
- ADP + ADP —> AMP + ATP
- When there is LOTS of ADP (and ATP is needed desperately): Myokinase is active
- When there is ATP present, myokinase is not active
Insulin pathway purpose
- Insulin binds to insulin receptor to activate a series of PHOSPHORYLATION of enzymes and other protein enzyme reactions to lead to…
- Ultimate goal is to ACTIVATE GLUT4 transporter: TRANSLOCATES the GLUT4 TRANSPORTER PROTEIN to the CELL MEMBRANE
- Also: INDIRECTLY ACTIVATES PDH activity…forcing glucose to be used as ENERGY, inhibiting b-oxidation by the same amount
When insulin used/not used:
During exercise: INSULIN not needed, b/c glucose is NEEDED in the MUSCLES…glucose therefore can stay in blood vs. being transported to the fat cells).