Nervous System Pathologies
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REMOVE! What are the signs & symptoms of NEURITIS (Gullian-Barre Syndrome GBS)?
Sudden, acute, progressive, bilateral, ascending paralysis.
What is the cause for Neuritis (Guillian-Barre Syndrome)? (question 10)
REMOVE! What is an allopathic treatment for GBS?
An emergancy - respirator, intensive care
List the causes of BELLS PALSY (question 10)
e.g Herpes virus
- Surgery (parotid gland)
What is Multiple Sclerosis (MS)?
- A demylinating condition - progressive demylination of neurons (CNS- brain & spinal cord) and damage to the myelin sheath causing impulse conduction and communication between nerves being disturbed.
- Increased risk with family history
- M:F 1:2Usually 20-50 years of age
What are possible causes for Multiple Sclerosis? (question 10)
- Unknown: maybe viral (measles & measles vaccine) or autoimmune.
- Genetic and dietary risk factors
**What are the signs & symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis? (question 12a & 14a)
- 'disease of the thousand faces'
- includes sensory, motor & visual degeneration, leading to numbness, burning, tingling, blurred vision, progressive paralysis.
- Can be progressive or relapsing -
What part of the body is affected by Multiple Sclerosis? (question 12b)
Demyelination of neurons (brain & spinal cord) and damage to the myelin sheath
**2 differential diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis..(question 14b)
- Herniated disk
- Herpes Zoster (shingles)
- Mercury Poisoning
- Sore eyes
- Motor neuron disease (early stages)
What is an allopathic treatment for Multiple Sclerosis? (question 12c)
- Constant symptoms are therapy resistant
What is Motor Neuron Disease?
A progressive degeneration of motor neurons in brain stem, spinal cord & motor cortex
Age of onset is typically >40 years
What are the forms of Motor Neuron Disease?
- * Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) - most common form (sometimes called Lou Gehrigs Disease)
- Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS)
- Progressive muscular atrophy (PMA)
- Progressive bulbar & pseudobulbar palsy (PBP)
What are the causes of Motor Neuron Disease? (question 10)
Unknown, suspected genetic link & toxic enviromental factor as well as trauma
What are the signs & symptoms of Motor Neuron Disease (ALS)? (question 12a)
(don't think it's this as no treatment listed)
- Main feature is muscle weakness
- Progressive muscle weakness, twitching, jerking (at rest) of the hands, arms & shoulders. (progressive bulbar palsy the 1st symptoms may appear in the muscles around the face & throat)
- affects the legs & feet (dragging the leg & tripping), Voice changes & speech is also affected (slurred), swallowing difficulties
What is Alzheimers Disease?
- Neurodegenerative disease of the cerebal cortex associated with abnormal protein deposition, destroying neurons that secrete acetylcholine.
- It is the most common type of dementia.
What are the causes of Alzheimers? (question 10)
- Genetic link
- Aluminium toxicity
REMOVE! What are the signs & symptoms of Alzheimers?
- Starts with the inability to incorporate new knowledge despite the retention of old information.
- Eventually leads to dementia
What is Parkinsons Disease?
A slow, progressive neurological disorder associated with the degeneration of neurons in various parts of the brain, primarily the dopaminergic neurons in the substania nigra.
What are the causes of Parkinsons? (question 10)
- Genetic link
- Toxic environmental factors:
- Carbon monoxide poisoning
- Manganese poisoning
- Exposure to pesticides & Herbicides
What are the signs & symptoms of Parkinsons Disease? (question 12a)
- The 3 cardinal signs:
- 1. Bradykinesia:
- Low voice, shuffling steps
2. Resting tremors
: Jerky movements
- 3. Rigidity:
- Muscle stiffness, lack of movement, mask like face
What part of the body is affected by Parkinsons Disease? (question 12b)
Degeneration of neurons in the brain, primary the dopaminergic neurons in the substania nigra
What is an allopathic treatment for Parkinsons Disease? (question 12c)
- Dopamine replacement (Levodopa/L-DOPA)
- Embryological stem cells
What is Huntingtons Disease?
Inherited neurodegenerative disorder affecting the brain/basal ganglia which affects muscle co-ordination and some cognitive functions.
The most common genetic cause of abnormal involuntary writhing movements called chorea (dance like swaying)
Inherited lack of GABA (neurotransmitter)
What is the cause of Huntingtons Disease? (question 10)
inherited lack of GABA
What is increased intracranial pressure (ICP)?
Cerebral oedema or inflammation
What are the causes for increased intracranial pressure (ICP)? (question 10)
- Inflammation of the brain or meninges
- Infarcts (ischaemia)
** What are 6 signs & symptoms of increased intracranial pressure (ICP)? (question 12a)
- Pupil fixed and/or dilated
- Impaired eye movement
- Impaired motor function causing abnormal posture
- Changes in speech
- Changes in vital signs
- Raised systolic blood pressure
- Low pulse & irregular respiratory pattern
- Vomiting/ nausea
- Changes in behaviour
- progressively low consciousness
- Seizures - abnormal neuron activity in brain
** What part of the body is affected my increased intracranial pressure? (question 12b)
** What is the treatment for increased intracranial pressure (ICP)? (question 12c)
- Critical condition, Intensive Care!
- frequently measured neurological and vital signs
What is Hydrocephalus?
An abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricles or other cavities of the brain caused by blocked circulation or absorption of CSF
What are the causes of hydrocephalus? (question 10)
- Small children:
- infection often before birth
- Older children & adults:
- Tumours, trauma
- Older people:
- Circulation problems (calcified plaques)
What are 6 signs & symptoms of Hydrocephalus? (question 12a)
- Headache - may be worse in the morning after waking up as fluid in your brain does not drain well while lying down.
- Neck pain
- Blurred/double vision
- difficulty walking
What part of the body is affected by Hydrocephalus? (question 12c)
The ventricles of the brain
What is the treatment for hydrocephalus? (question 12c)
- Shunt/ventricular catheter/tube
- Lumbar puncture
What is Meningitis?
Infection or inflammation of the membranes (meninges) covering the brain and spinal cord.
What are the causes of meningitis? (question 10)
Mostly bacterial infection (usually Haemphilus influenzeae & Streptococcus pneumoniae)
Viral infection (less severe) eg herpes simplex virus.
May also be fungal or parasitic micro-organisms (giardia)
** What are the signs & symptoms of Meningitis? (question 12a)
- Petechiae (does not blanch)
- Severe headache
- Stiff neck
- Kernigs sign (resistance to leg extension when lying with the hips flexed)
- Brudzinski sign (neck flexion causes flexion of hip and knee)
** What part of the body is affected by Meningitis? (question 12b)
Membranes (meninges) covering the brain & spinal cord
** What is the treatment/support for Meningitis? (question 12c)
- Antibiotics (IV)
- Herbs & nutrition
What are some common signs & symptoms from a HEAD INJURY?
- Vary from mild - severe:
- Leaking CSF or blood from ear or nose
What is CONCUSSION (jarring of the brain)? (question 15)
Reversible head injury which usually results from a significant BLOW to the head causing a sudden movement of the brain & disrupting neurological function.
What is CONTUSION? (question 15)
- Bruising of the brain with ruptured blood vessels and oedema, usually caused by a blunt blow to the head.
- Residual damage depends on force of the blow and amount of tissue injury.
What are 6 signs & symptoms of contusion? (question 12a)
- Vary from mild - severe:
- SleepinessLoss of consciousness
- Difficulty with coordination and movement
- Impaired memory, vision, speech, hearing
What part of the body is affected by contusion? (question 12b)
What is the treatment/support for contusion? (question 12c)
- MEDICAL EMERGANCY!Arnica 200c in addition to calling the emergency services.
What is Contrecoup injury? (question 15)
- Damage to the brain at site contra-lateral to the site of direct damage/trauma
- Damage occurs as the brain bounces off the skull
What is a Basilar Fracture?
Fracture at the base of the skull
What are some common causes for HEADACHES? (question 10)
- Congested sinuses
- Muscle tension/spasms
- Jaw joint problems
- Caffeine withdrawal
What are the causes of a Migrane? (question 10)
- Abnormal blood flow & metabolism in the brain
- Food allergies
- Food additives
- Hormonal changes
- Poor sleep
**What are the signs & symptoms of a Migrane? (question 12a/ 14a)
- Unusual visual - 'Aura'
- Sensory hypersensitivity
- Incapacitating pain
- Headache & Visual disturbances
**Give two differential diagnoses for a Migrane (question 14b)
- Brain tumour
- Head injury
What are some causes of Epilepsy? (question 10)
- After brain damage
- Head injuries
- Medication (Larium- anti malarial)
What is the cause for Erbs Palsy? (question 10)
Forceful pulling away of head from shoulder i.e. stretching neck during child birth
Injury at C5/C6
What are causes of Sciatica? (question 10)
- Disc herniation in L4/L5Tumours in the pelvisPregnancy
What is the cause of Klumpke's palsy (claw hand)? (question 10)
Damage to the Ulnar nerve
What is the cause of Ape Hand (racial plexus injury)? (question 10)
Damage to the Median nerve
What is the cause of Wrist Drop (saturday night palsy)? (question 10)
Damage to the Radial nerve
What is the cause of Spina Bifida? (question 10)
Lack of Folic Acid during pregnancy
What are the causes of Phenylketonuria? (question 10)
Genetic defect - deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase
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