Pharmacology test 3

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ckitejr
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300683
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Pharmacology test 3
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2015-04-20 21:06:57
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medical pharmacology physician assistant
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Pharmacology test 3 for physician assistants
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  1. chlorpromazine
    • 1st generation antipsychotic
    • low potency
    • Tx presurgical antianxiety
  2. proclorperazine
    • 1st generation antipsychotic
    • low potency
    • TX NV in chemo patients
  3. thioridazine
    • 1st generation antipsychotic
    • low potency
    • Tx: Bx problems in kids, dementia in elderly, and anxiety associated with depression
  4. fluphenazine
    • 1st generation antipsychotic
    • high potency
  5. haloperidol
    • 1st generation antipsychotic
    • high potency
    • Tx Tourette's, and singultus (hiccups)
  6. pimozide
    • 1st generation antipsychotic
    • high potency
    • Tx Tourette's, refractory motor and phonic tics
  7. clozapine
    • 2nd generation antipsychotic
    • medium potency
    • High 5HT2A affinity
    • SE: agranulocytosis
    • alpha blockade-->sedation, muscle relaxation, hypotension, reflex tach, EKG changes
    • Anticholinergic effects through muscarinic blockade
  8. apripiprazole
    • 2nd generation antipsychotic
    • med potency
    • DA stabilizer--partial dopamine agonist
    • No prolonged QT
    • Tx: schizophrenia and acute mania with bipolar
    • SE MC somnolence (drowsiness)
  9. olanzapine
    • 2nd generation antipsychotic
    • med potency
    • High 5HT2A receptor affinity
    • available ER to increase med compliance for schizo patients
    • Tx acute mania with bipolar
    • SE orthostasis, sedation, metabolic disturbance (weight gain)
  10. quetiapine
    • 2nd generation antipsychotic (atypical neuroleptic)
    • med potency
    • 5HT2A receptor antagonist
    • Tx refractory depression (not first line)
    • SE wt gain, sedation, orthostasis
  11. risperidone
    • 2nd generation antipsychotic (atypical neuroleptic)
    • med potency
    • Tx agression and irritability associated with Autism, self injurous Bx in children, Monotherapy for Bipolar
    • SE--wt gain, sedation
    • Potent alphadrenergic antagonist--orthostasis is common
  12. ziprasidone
    • 2nd gen antipsychotic (atypical neuroleptic)
    • med potency
    • Tx Tourette's, schizo, acute mania
    • SE--prolonged QT CI in pt's with arrhythmias
  13. busprione
    • selective 5HT receptor blocker
    • Tx anxiety
    • delyaed onset
    • no impaired psychomotor function or sedation
  14. hydroxyzine
    • Tx preoperative anxiety and generalized anxiety
    • antihistamine
  15. Propranalol
    • beta blocker
    • reduces sympathetic arousal
    • Tx stage fright
  16. Diazepam
    • long half life
    • Tx anxiety
    • schedule IV controlled substance
    • prodrug
  17. chlordiazepozide
    • long half life to treat anxiety
    • schedule IV controlled substance
    • prodrug
  18. clorazepate
    • long half life
    • Tx anxiety
    • Pro-drug--not active until metabolized
    • schedule IV controlled substance
  19. flurazepam
    • long half life
    • Tx anxiety
    • facilitates sleep with no rebound insomnia
    • reduced levels of REM sleep
  20. alprazolam
    • intermediate acting antianxiety
    • residual drowsiness after sedative effects wear off
    • 10x as potent as diazepam
    • CYP450 3A4 inhibitors will affect clearance
    • Has abuse potential and thus CI in pt's with EtOH abuse Hx
  21. lorazepam
    • intermediate acting antianxiety
    • residual drowsiness after sedative effects wear off
  22. oxqzepam
    • short acting anti-anxitey
    • cause rebound anxiety when effects terminate
  23. triazolam
    • short acting anti-anxiteycause rebound anxiety when effects terminate
    • metabolism changes in elderly
    • affected by drugs that affect CYP450
    • can produce amnesia
  24. midazolam
    • pre op or pre procedure anti anxiety
    • IV or IM (water soluble)
    • Short acting
    • SE respiratory depression & decreased tidal volume
  25. flumazenil
    • only benzodiazepine antgonist
    • Tx benzo OD
    • doesn't reverse effect of barbiturates, opiate agonists, or TCAs
    • re-sedation can occur
  26. zolpidem
    • Tx insomnia
    • alpha 1 selective
    • associated with reduced muscle relaxation
    • short term use
  27. Zaleplon
    • Interacts with GABA receptors containing alpha 1 & 2 subunits
    • decreases sleep onset time for up to 35 days w/o tolerance
    • Protects REM sleep
  28. diphenhydramine
    • antihistamine
    • 1st generation H1 antagonist
    • CNS depression (additive with EtOH)
  29. Chlorpheniramine
    • 1st generation H1 antagonist
    • causes drowsiness
  30. Loratidine
    • 2nd generation H1 antagonist
    • non-sedating
    • longer duration
    • no 5HT activity or anticholinergic-->no dry mouth
  31. Cetriazine
    • 2nd generation H1 antagonist
    • nonsedating
    • longer duration
    • no 5HT activity or anticholinergic-->no dry mouth
  32. Fexofenadine
    • 2nd generation H1 antagonist
    • non sedating
    • longer duration
    • no 5HT activity or anticholinergic --no dry mouth
  33. cimetidine
    • H2 antagonist
    • interacts with: antacids, benzos, phenytoin, warfarin, propranolol, amp B, cephalosporins, lidocaine
  34. Ranitidine
    • H2 antagonist
    • 5x more potent than cimetidine
    • no anti androgen activities
    • doesn't inhibit drug metabolism
  35. Albuterol
    • Beta 2 agonist
    • SE--hypo Kalemia, tremor
    • tachycardia at high dose
  36. Salmeterol
    • Beta 2 agonist
    • long acting for nocturnal sx's
  37. Formoterol
    • Beta 2 agonist
    • longer acting for nocturnal sx's
  38. Epinephrine
    (respiratory context)
    • Beta 2 agonist at low dose-->bronchdilation
    • Alpha 1 and beta 1 at high dose--Tachycardia
    • Tx anaphylaxis
    • no benefit over albuterol for asthma
  39. Ipratropuum Bromide
    • broncho dilator 30-60mins
    • no adverse side effects
    • Tx COPD -->slows pulmonary function loss
    • not for asthma
  40. Atropine
    (respiratory context)
    • anticholinergic
    • reduce secretions prior to bronch
    • given IM
  41. Glycopyrrolate
    • antimuscarinic
    • decrease bronchial secretions
    • peak effect 15-30 min after IM administration--1min after IV admin.
  42. Theophylline
    • phophodiesterase inhibitor --> increase cAMP
    • Adenosine receptor antagonist
    • Ca influx
    • Increases contractility of diaphragm
    • CYP450 active
    • N/V, tremor, seizure, Bx disorders
  43. Aminophylline
    • phosphodiesterase inhibitor --> increased cAMP
    • adensosine receptor antagonist
    • increased Ca
    • Tx severe refractory bronchospasm
    • IV administration is only benefit over Theophylline
  44. Budesonide
    • inhaled corticosteroid
    • no immediate effect
    • increases beta 2 receptors
    • Tx chronic asthma if using inhaler >3x/wk
    • SE weakens bones, adrenal suppression
  45. Fluticasone
    • inhaled corticosteroid
    • no immediate effect
    • increases beta 2 receptors
    • Tx chronic asthma if using inhaler >3x/wk
    • SE weakens bones, adrenal suppression
  46. Cromolyn sodium
    • inhibits bronchoconstriction¬†
    • no absorption side effects
  47. Nedocromil sodium
    • reduces airway hyper responsiveness
    • no absorptive side effects
  48. Acetylcystein
    • mucolytic
    • decreases COPD exacerbations
  49. Dornase alfa DNA-ase
    • mucolytic
    • Tx CF
    • $$$
  50. Leuprolide
    • GnRH analogue
    • Pulsitile --> agonist to FSH/LH
    • Nonpulsitile-->antagonist to FSH/LH
    • Pulsitile--Tx infertility--better than HcG, b/c less likely to produce multiple ova
    • Dx of LH responsiveness for hypogonadotropic hypogonadism
    • Nonpulsitile Tx--endometriosis, uterine fibroids, prostate cancer, ovarian hyperstimulation (IVF)
  51. ethinyl estradiol
    • synthetic estrogen --no 1st pass effect
    • regulates transcription
    • Tx primary hypogodnadism & postmenopausal therapy
    • CI in Pt's with estrogen dependent neoplasms
  52. medroxyprogesterone
    • exogenous progesterone
    • regulates transcription
    • hormone replacement and contraception
    • increases Na and H2O excretion
  53. clomiphene
    • selective estrogen receptor modulator SERM
    • Tx disorders of ovulation
    • SE hot flashes, HA constipation, allergic skin reactions and hair loss
    • long term treatment associated with ovarian CA
  54. tamoxifen
    • selective estrogen receptor modulator SERM
    • Tx estrogen positive breast cancer
  55. raloxifene
    • selective estrogen receptor modulator SERM
    • Tx post-menopausal osteoporosis
    • reduction of risk for invasive BC
  56. mifepristone
    • progesterone receptor antagonist
    • RU-486
    • Used to terminate pregnancy
  57. danazol
    • partial androgen receptor agonist
    • Tx endometriosis
  58. anastrozole
    • aromatase inhibitor
    • used when Pt can use Tamaxofin
  59. terbutaline
    • beta 2 agonist
    • acts on uterus to reduce premature uterine contractions
  60. finasteride
    • 5 alpha reductase inhibitor
    • Tx BPH
  61. flutamide
    • antiandrogen
    • Tx prostate carcinoma
  62. ketoconazole
    • antiandrogen
    • Tx PCOS poly cycstic ovarian syndrome
  63. sprionolactone
    antiandrogen
  64. tamsulosin
    • alpha 1 antagonist
    • Tx BPH
  65. sildenifil
    • phosphodiesterase inhibitor
    • increases cGMP causeing relaxation of smooth muscle
    • Tx ED
  66. vardenafil
    • phosphodiesterase inhibitor
    • increases cGMP leading to relaxing of nonvascular smooth muscle
    • Tx ED
  67. Dicyclomine
    • anticholinergic ¬†
    • decreases protein kinase in parietal cell leading to decreased gastric secretions
  68. Misoprostol
    • prostoglandin receptor agonist
    • excites the inhibitory effects on adnylyl cyclase that increases cAMP then activating protein kinase which inhibits H+ secretions in parietal cell
  69. omeprazole
    • acts directly on the proton pump to decrease H+ secretions
    • Tx: GERD, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
    • Administer 3 hours prior to anesthesia
  70. Sodium bicarbonate
    • prompt antacid
    • brief systemic alkalosis possible
    • alkalinize urine-->stones?
  71. Magnesium hydroxide
    • prompt antacid with no neutralization rebound
    • laxative (osmotic diarrhea)
    • CI with renal impairment
  72. Calcium carbonate
    • antacid
    • chronic use produces metabolic alkalosis
    • hypercalcemia may occur
    • leads to acid rebound
    • may cause flatulence
  73. Aluminum hydroxide
    • antacid
    • causes constipation
    • Can cause c-diff from chronic alkalinization
  74. sucralfate
    • Mocuosal protective agent
    • requires acidic pH for activation
  75. metooxlopramide
    • DA antagonist
    • increases LES tone
    • Tx preoperative gastric fluid reducation, reverse morphine inuce gastric stasis
    • SE--abdominal cramping, dysphoria, dry mouth
  76. prochloperazine
    • DA blocker
    • Tx emesis
    • SE hypotension
  77. Ondansetron
    • 5HT receptor antagonist
    • Tx N/V associated with caner
  78. Droperidol
    • DA receptor antagonist
    • MOA inhibits receptors in vomit center of medula
    • SE--calming effect

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