Bio Exam 3

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Bio Exam 3
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2015-04-16 00:43:16
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  1. cardiovascular system
    • Circulatory system
    • Composed of heart, blood vessels, blood
    • Closed system that moves blood between heart and cells
  2. heart
    • Organ that pushes blood thru body
    • Size of fist, in chest
    • Contracts atria and ventricles to push blood
    • Valves open and close to make lub-dub heartbeat¬†
    • Regulated by electrical signals
  3. blood vessels
    • arteries, veins, capillaries
    • arterioles, venules
    • Transport blood to/from heart thru body
  4. veins
    Carry blood to the heart
  5. arteries
    Carry blood from the heart
  6. blood
    • fluid tissue
    • composed of liquid plasma and cellular elements
    • replenished from cells in bone marrow
  7. plasma
    • 55% of blood liquid
    • 92% water, ions, nutrients, waste
  8. red blood cells
    • Carry oxygen to cells
    • 99% of cellular elements in blood
    • No nuclei
    • Packed with hemoglobin
    • ~120 days
    • Dark red = deoxy
    • Bright red = oxy
  9. white blood cells
    • Immunity cells
    • defend body from invading organisms
    • 3-4 days
  10. platelets
    • Cell fragments produced by large cells
    • clump together to stop bleeding
    • release clotting factors
    • 5-9 days
  11. clotting factors
    chemicals that help make blood clots
  12. hemophilia
    • inability to clot blood
    • clotting factors not released
  13. atria
    • top chambers of heart
    • 1 & 3
  14. ventricles
    • bottom chambers of heart
    • 2 & 4
  15. capillaries
    • allow exchange of gases & nutrients between blood and cells
    • very thin, 1 cells at time
  16. homeostasis
    • maintaining constant internal environment
    • ability of organism to sense and maintain constant internal environment despite changes in external environment
  17. thermoregulation
    process of controlling heat gain or loss
  18. metabolic heat
    • heat gained from metabolic processes
    • sum of chemical reactions inside cells
    • Food = ultimate source of heat
  19. environmental heat
    • heat obtained from external environment
    • sunlight = ultimate source of heat
  20. endotherm
    • animals that warm themselves
    • mammals, birds
    • metabolic heat
  21. electrical signals in the heart
    • p-wave: atria contract
    • QRS wave: ventricles contract
    • t-wave: recovery, relaxes
  22. ectotherm
    • animals that depend on environment for warmth
    • invertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles
    • gain energy from sunlight
  23. What are the three components of the circulatory system?
    • heart
    • blood vessels
    • blood
  24. What is the purpose of the circulatory system?
    move blood between heart and cells
  25. How does the Heart work?
    • Pumps blood by contracting atria and ventricles
    • right atrium receives deoxy blood from body
    • contracts to push blood down to right ventricle
    • right ventricle contracts to push blood into lungs to get O2
    • left atrium receives O2 blood from lungs
    • contracts to push blood down to left ventricle
    • left ventricle contracts and pushes blood to body
  26. When is your blood oxygen rich? When is your blood oxygen poor?
    • Oxygen rich when leaving lungs and heart until reaches capillaries
    • Oxygen poor from capillaries to heart/lungs
  27. When is your blood dark red? When is your blood bright red? What makes it change
    color?
    • Dark red = deoxy blood, cap to heart/lungs
    • Bright red = oxy blood, lungs/heart to cap
    • O2 bonded to hemoglobin changes color of blood
  28. What is the direction of blood flow in our bodies?
    • high pressure to low pressure
    • heart - lungs - heart - body - heart
  29. What are some important facts about the heart?
    • Fist-sized in chest
    • heartbeat from valves opening/closing
    • regulated by electrical signals
  30. What is hemoglobin? Where do we find hemoglobin?
    • protein that binds O2
    • found in red blood cells
  31. What is blood pressure? What is the expected blood pressure of a healthy resting
    human heart?
    • Force generated by heart to drive blood thru vessels
    • 120/80
    • top number: maximum pressure, heart contracts
    • bottom number: minimum pressure, heart relaxes
  32. How does your body know how to react to your changing environment?
    • body senses external environment¬†
    • produces response to counteract change
    • knows when to stop reaction
  33. What aspects of our body do we regulate?
    • temp: 37 C. 98.6 F
    • moisture/hydration levels: excretion/retention of fluids
    • pH: 7.3
    • gases: O2, CO2
    • organic molecules: glucose, ions
  34. What are the two main sources of heat for animals?
    • Food - endotherm, metabolic
    • Sunlight - ectotherm, environmental
  35. peripheral nervous system
    gathers info from internal/external enviro
  36. central nervous system
    processes info from PNS & generates response
  37. neurons
    • nerve cells that receive & send electrical signals
    • detect & interpret info
    • integrate info from multiple sources
    • store info
  38. glial cells
    support cells of the nervous system
  39. dendrites
    • around neuron body
    • receive messages from other cells
  40. axon
    • tail of neuron
    • passes messages away from body to other neurons, muscles, glands
  41. brain
    • organ
    • center of nervous system
    • encased in cranium
  42. spinal cord
    • thick central nerve cord
    • continuous with brain
    • protected by vertebra
  43. nerves
    • 31 pairs
    • axons of multiple neurons bundled together to form one communication pathway
  44. vertebra
    stacks of ring-shaped bones that surround the spinal cord
  45. somatic
    Voluntary control over PNS messages
  46. autonomic
    Involuntary responses to PNS messages
  47. sympathetic
    • fight or flight
    • responses to stress
  48. parasympathetic
    • rest and digest
    • regulate body's actions
  49. interneurons
    form connections between neurons
  50. action potential
    • electrical disturbance that travels down the axon
    • Na+ has charge, travels down axon in 1 direction
    • triggers release of neurotransmitters to next cell
  51. neurotransmitters
    • chemical messengers
    • stored at axon's terminal
    • triggers next cell for message
    • triggered by action potential
    • bind to receptors on membrane of next neuron
    • alter the electrical charge of next neuron to start another action potential
  52. synapse
    junction where message from one cell is relayed to next cell
  53. sensory system
    • part of peripheral system
    • process sensory info from receptors
  54. sensory receptors
    detect stimuli and transmit info to nervous system
  55. chemoreceptors
    • receptors that respond to chemicals
    • taste buds in tongue for taste
    • receptors in nose for smell
  56. mechanoreceptors
    • receptors that respond to physical changes affecting the surface and interior of body
    • skin receptors for touch - light, pressure, strong pressure
    • bare nerve endings sense pain & itching & temp
    • receptors in ear for hearing
    • outer ear funnels sounds into inner ear
  57. photoreceptors
    • receptors that respond to light
    • vision in eye
  58. What are the components of the Nervous System?
    • central nervous system
    • peripheral nervous system
  59. What is the difference between the CNS and the PNS?
    • PNS gathers info
    • CNS processes & responds to info
  60. What are the components of the CNS?
    • brain
    • spinal cord
    • coverings
  61. What is the function of the Nervous System?
    receive, interpret, respond to messages from sensory organs
  62. How do neurons send and receive messages?
    • action potential travels down axon
    • reaches axon terminal
    • triggers neurotransmitters
    • message continues to next neuron
  63. What are the different kinds of receptors of the Sensory System?
    • chemo
    • mechano
    • photo
  64. What is the relationship between the Nervous and the Sensory Systems?
    • nervous system processes info from sensory system
    • sensory system is part of PNS
  65. respiratory system
    • system responsible for exchange of O2 and CO2 between organism & enviro
    • lungs, diaphragm, airways, pharynx/larynx/trachea
  66. lungs
    • respiration organs
    • O2 & CO2 exchanged from blood
  67. diaphragm
    • sheet of muscles
    • lays across bottom of chest cavity
    • separates heart & lungs from ab cavity
  68. pharynx
    • airway
    • area where mouth & nose cavities meet
    • back of throat
  69. larynx
    • voice box
    • below pharynx
    • above trachea
  70. trachea
    • largest breathing tube
    • covered by C-bands
    • below larynx
  71. breathing
    process of taking and releasing air from lungs
  72. inhalation
    when air is pulled into lungs
  73. exhalation
    when air leaves lungs
  74. bronchi
    • smaller tubes branching from trachea
    • lead to lungs
  75. alveoli
    • tiny sacs with thin membranes in lungs
    • allow diffusion of gases between red blood cells & air
  76. digestive system
    • system responsible for digesting food
    • begins at mouth, ends at anus
    • food broken down into smaller organic molecules
    • organic molecules absorbed into bloodstream
  77. digestion
    • chemical breakdown of food
    • mouth - sugars
    • stomach - proteins
    • upper small intestine - fats
  78. ingestion
    • first stage of digestion
    • consumption of food
  79. absorption
    uptake of nutrients from food into bloodstream
  80. elimination
    • last stage of digestion
    • expulsion of undigested food
  81. behavior
    • sum of total responses from environmental stimuli
    • fixed & learned
  82. stimuli
    cues from environment for behavior
  83. What is the main function of the respiratory system?
    exchange gases between organism & enviro
  84. What are the components of the respiratory system?
    • lungs
    • diaphragm
    • airways (nose, mouth, pharynx)
    • windpipe (pharynx, larynx, trachea)
  85. What happens when we breathe?
    • take in air from enviro
    • air enters body through airways
    • air travels down windpipe to lungs
    • deoxy blood pumped to lungs
    • gases diffuse thru alveoli to blood
  86. How do we exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide? How does this relate to
    cellular respiration?
    • respiratory system provides O2 for circulatory system
    • circ system takes O2 to cells for respiration
    • circ system carries CO2 to respiratory system for expulsion
  87. What are the different components of the digestive system?
    • mouth
    • esophagus
    • stomach
    • intestines
    • colon
    • anus
  88. How do we process food?
    • chewed, then chemically broken down
    • mouth - sugars, enzymes in saliva
    • stomach - proteins, enzymes in acid
    • upper small intestine - fats
    • nutrients absorbed
    • undigested food expelled
  89. What are some examples of animal behaviors?
    • find food
    • avoid predators
    • defend territories
    • choose mates
    • take care of offspring
  90. What is the difference between fixed behaviors and learned behaviors?
    • fixed: expressed from birth, instinctual
    • learned: acquired by experience, from past situations
  91. Name two types of learned behavior
    • imprinting: babies learn to recognize mothers
    • problem solving: figure out solutions to challenging problems
  92. What are other types of behaviors?
    • social: interactions among members of a group
    • communication: exchange/send signals with others, any type of signal/sense
    • mating: lead to sexual reproduction
  93. skeleton
    • hard internal framework
    • provides support, protection, movement
    • bones and cartilage
    • axial & appendicular
  94. bones
    • living tissue with blood vessels and nerves
    • surrounded by calcium & phosphate
    • long, short, flat, irregular
    • spongy & compact tissues
  95. axial skeleton
    • bones for protecting vital organs
    • along midline of body
    • skull, sternum, ribs, spinal column
  96. appendicular skeleton
    • bones attached to spinal column
    • for motion
    • scapula, clavicle, hips, arms, legs
  97. marrow
    tissue inside bones that produces blood cells
  98. cartilage
    • dense connective tissue¬†
    • strength & flexibility
    • nose, ears, rib cage, joints
  99. teeth
    • small calcified structures
    • incisors, canines, premolars & molars
  100. ecosystem
    all organisms & non-living factors in specific area
  101. community
    interacting species in defined area
  102. food webs
    • sequences of feeding patterns
    • dietary relationships between organisms
    • various food chains in a community
  103. food chains
    linear sequence of feeding
  104. producers
    organisms that capture sunlight and produce glucose
  105. consumers
    • organisms that eat other organisms
    • cannot make own food
  106. trophic levels
    • different levels in a food chain
    • level of energy flow through an ecosystem
  107. What is the function of the human skeleton?
    • provide support
    • protect organs
    • allow movement
  108. What is the function of the bones involved in the axial skeleton? What about the
    appendicular skeleton?
    • axial: protect vital organs
    • appendicular: movement
  109. What are the different types of bones and where can we find them?
    • long: large movements, legs & arms
    • short: fine movements, hands & feet
    • flat: protection, head & trunk
    • irregular: various functions, throughout body
  110. What are the two structural components of bones?
    • compact bone tissue: forms hard white outer region
    • spongy bone tissue: forms inside of bone, bone cells form meshwork
    • blood vessels & nerves
  111. Name the different types of mammalian teeth and their functions?
    • incisors: front teeth, biting & cutting
    • canines: each side of incisors, piercing & tearing
    • premolars & molars: back/cheek, grinding
  112. How can we differentiate between a carnivore and herbivore based on their
    teeth?
    • carnivore - sharp teeth for piercing & biting
    • herbivore - flat teeth for grinding
  113. What makes an ecosystem?
    • all living organisms
    • non-living factors
    • interactions to obtain energy
  114. What is the difference between food webs and food chains?
    • food webs made up of many food chains
    • food webs are multi-direction
    • food chains linear
  115. What happens to the Energy as it flows through the Food Chains?
    • flows in single direction, not recycled
    • energy enters as sunlight
    • captured by producers
    • 10% obtained in each trophic level
    • energy lost as heat in each level
  116. What are the different trophic levels in an ecosystem?
    • producer
    • primary consumer
    • secondary consumer
    • tertiary consumer
  117. Name one example of how we can study an ecosystem. (Hint: what did you do
    in Lab 18?)
    Examine droppings, prey

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