Exam 4 review part 2 of 2.txt

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rincrocci
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300713
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Exam 4 review part 2 of 2.txt
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2015-04-13 18:31:20
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Exam 4 part 2 of 2
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  1. Insulin pathway breakdown
    • Insulin binds to: Insulin receptor (IR)
    • IR binds
  2. How does Protein Kinase C lead to INCReased Protein synthesis?
    Via INCREASE in Ca release
  3. How does muscle fiber help dictate size of muscle?
    • The more FAST Twitch muscle fibers: Greater amt of APs (Increased ACh release) so Ca release is INCREASED during min. contraction vs slow twitch
    • This means that doing similar exercise, fast twitch is releasing more Ca, therefore leading to: INCREASED PROTEIN Kinase C
    • Since Protein Kinase C is activated by Ca: More Calcium = more protein kinase C = more muscle growth
  4. Roles of inulin (AND other growth hormones)
    • 1: ENHANCE protein synthesis (ie activate protein kinase c, lead to increased prot synth)
    • 2: Activate GLUCOSE Transport
    • Also, insulin can activate: AKT
  5. 5 MAJOR STPathways involved in REGULATION of Growth and development
    • These are necessary for maintaining and enhancing cell fxn
    • 1. PI3K/AKT
    • 2. p38-MAPK
    • 3. JNK-MAPk
    • 4. ERK-MAPK
    • 5. NF-kB
  6. Pathway activation in each cell..different or same?
    Each cell has a different ARRAY of PROTEINS produced: Constantly changing due to ALTERED Activation of different TFs
  7. 2 outcomes of mRNA
    • 1: Translation by the ribosomes
    • 2: Degradation by RNases
    • Transcription is HEAVILY REGULATED: Need enough mRNA to not all get degraded, enough so some can still get translated
  8. How is PROTEIN Synthesis regulated
    Via Transcriptional regulation: DONE VIA ST PAthways
  9. To activate protein synthesis
    • Ca alone can do this via Activating ST pathways
    • Insulin can do this, but not needed
    • Protein kinase C: which is activated by Ca
  10. How do you release the most Ca while exercising
    • 1. Intensity: Maximum intensity releases MAXIMUM amt of Ca, activating Maximum ST Pathways
    • 2. Duration: Longer Time periods of Less than MAX to get same Ca release as at MAX
  11. End results of 30% Max workout (increased intensity and duration)
    • Long duration: Leads to INCREASED Radical production (ROS) and increased Ca vs shorter timepoint.
    • Increased intensity: Releases More Ca, leading to Increased ST Pathway activity and increases in protein synthesis
    • RESULT: Hypertrophy due to Calcium and oxidants
  12. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2)
    • Activated by Protein Kinase c, which is activated by Ca
    • Further activated by ERK/MAPK, p38/MAPK
    • INITIATES Pro-Inflammatory RESPONSE
  13. What initiates Pro-inflammatory response
    Mild Metabolic STRESS (Normal met fxns during exercise): DAMAGE NOT NECESSARY to initiate pro-inflamm response
  14. Increased activation of ST pathways leads to..
    • Increased pro-inflammatory responses: NFkB activation to get IL1, IL6(anti-inflamm) activation (NOT TNF-alpha...this is indicating damage, not stress response)
    • Increased H2O2 production
    • Increased Radical production
  15. Why is duration of exercise important for proteiin synthesis
    • Need Long time of stress to activate and allow for production and binding of growth factors
    • Insulin grown factor: needs to be first ACTIVATED, then PRODUCED...takes time for this
  16. WHAT Proteins necessary for HYPERTROPHY?
    • Groth hormones
    • ERK: Jun+Fos need to combine with STATS to allow for INCREASED TFs to increase MYC, p21 SYNTHESIS
    • Leads to: Proliferation of satellite cells and fusion of these with existing muscle cells.
    • To INCREASE CELL DIVISION of stem cells (which ultimatey become muscle cells): PROSTOGLANDIN needs to be activated
  17. To increase MITOCHONDRIAL BIOGENESIS
    • Increased Calcium and AMP (activate CaMK and AMP-PK): activate MEF2 and NRF1
    • Meanwhile: CREB and ATF2 (activated by PI3K/MAPK pathways) activate PGCI1
    • Combining PGC1a with MEF2 AND NRF1: Activates SYNTHESIS of TFAM
    • Once enough TFAM is generated: Transports to mitochondria..for MITOCHONDRIAL BIOGENESIS
    • **DURATION IS KEY HERE! Lots of PROTEINS have to get SYNTHESIZED and travel
  18. Increasing what leads to Increased performance?
    • 1: HYPERTROPHY (ie 30%max increases prot. synth)
    • 2: Mitochondrial Biogenesis (ie HIIT training)
    • 3: CELL DIVISION!
    • Anyway to Activate ST pathways the most for a LONG Duration until you can't do anymore

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