Pharm- Intracellular Messengers Part 2

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Mawad
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300735
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Pharm- Intracellular Messengers Part 2
Updated:
2015-04-13 22:57:01
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vetmed pharmacology
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vetmed
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  1. Parasympathetic stimulation constricts the pupil by the action of __________ on __________ receptors.
    acetylcholine; muscarinic
  2. Sympathetic stimulation dilates the pupil through the release of ____________ on __________ receptors.
    norepinephrine; alpha
  3. Anaphylaxis is ____________, resulting in the release of ___________; the ___________ and ___________ effects can be life threatening.
    acute hypersensitivity; histamine; hypotensive; bronchoconstrictor
  4. ____________ is the physiological antagonist of the histamines released during anaphylaxis.
    Epinephrine
  5. How does epinephrine antagonize histamine?
    does NOT compete with histamine for receptors on the smooth muscle, but produces a separate, rapid action trough alpha and beta receptors
  6. Epinephrine given during anaphylaxis results in an immediate...
    increase in BP and relaxation of bronchiole airways.
  7. Morphine (and opiates) cause __________ when given systemically (not when placed directly in the eye); this is because the site of action of morphine is in the ___________ segment of the ____________.
    miosis; autonomic; oculomotor nucleus of the brain
  8. Atropine placed in the eye or given systemically antagonizes the response to __________ by...
    morphine; competitively blocking acetylcholine at the muscarinic receptors of the sphincter muscle.
  9. Atropine is a _____________ drug because it can effectively block all ___________________.
    parasympatholytic; muscarinic receptors in the animal's body
  10. Atropine is _________ in many different organs; it has a high degree of _________ because it acts at ________.
    nonselective; specificity; only muscarinic receptors
  11. Acepromazine has _______ specificity; it is a _________ drug, which causes tranquilization by blocking _________ in the _________.
    low; neuroleptic; dopaminergic nerves; CNS
  12. Acepromazine has ____________ effect by blocking the pressor effect of __________.
    BP lowering; norephinephrine
  13. Yohimbine has a ______ specificity, acting at _________ receptor site(s).
    low; many
  14. If nerve degeneration occurs causes decreased release of neurotransmitter, there is a(n) ___________ in the number of receptors, producing a state of ____________, where the drug effect for a given dose is _________ than normal.
    increase; supersensitivity; greater
  15. If chronic receptor blockade is present, there is a(n) ___________ in the number of receptors, producing a state of ____________, where the drug effect for a given dose is _________ than normal.
    increase; supersensitivity; greater
  16. If chronic exposure to more neurotransmitter or to an exogenous agent which acts as an agonist at the receptor occurs, there is a(n) ___________ in the number of receptors, producing a state of ____________, where the drug effect for a given dose must be _________ than normal.
    decrease; subsensitivity; higher (to achieve the same affect
  17. If chronic exposure to more neurotransmitter or to an exogenous agent which acts as an agonist at the receptor occurs, the downregulation is due to a(n) _________ rate of ____________ or _____________.
    increased; receptor degradation; decreased receptor production
  18. Examples of physiochemical mechanisms that drugs use to produce their effects; what are these types of actions referred to as?
    altering pH of body fluids by addition or neutralization of hydrogen ions, by shifting water in fluid compartments by changing osmolarity; non-receptor mediated actions
  19. Cytoplasmic receptors most often involve modifications of ____________.
    an enzymatic process
  20. A ___________ exists between the receptor and the effector which may be a tightly coupled process.
    coupling mechanism
  21. The endpoint where a cellular change takes place, such as a change in membrane permeability or an enzymatic rate.
    effector
  22. When the coupling requires multiple steps involving the synthesis and turnover of other cellular substrates, these substrates are referred to as _____________.
    intracellular/secondary messengers
  23. Describe the action mechanism of lidocaine.
    uncharged molecule enters cell --> in cell, picks up proton and becomes charged --> blocks the channel
  24. How is the lidocaine mechanism of action different in necrotic tissue?
    with necrosis, tissue is more acidic --> less drug becomes unionized to enter cell --> must increase dose
  25. Drugs which act directly at ion channels do so by mimicking the __________ at the receptor, causing the channel to ________ or by _________ the receptor and preventing the _________ from _________ the channel.
    endogenous agonist; open; blocking; agonist; opening
  26. Indirectly acting drugs increase or decrease the amount of ___________ or ___________ available to act at the ion channel receptor.
    released neurotransmitter; hormone
  27. Sodium channels at nicotinic sites in the ganglia and neuromuscular junction open in response to ___________.
    acetylcholine (or drugs that mimic it)
  28. At toxic levels of cholinesterase inhibition, the autonomic nervous system responds with...
    excessive parasympathetic outflow, which may be treated with atropine.
  29. Calcium channels are located in _______________, and they normally operate to regulate...
    smooth and cardiac muscle; entry and the intracellular levels of calcium, ultimately controlling the force and rhythm of contraction.
  30. Calcium channel blockers result in...
    relaxation of vascular smooth muscle, lower ing BP, and slowing of HR.
  31. Chloride channels are located in ____________ in the _________; they open in response to ___________.
    inhibitory synapses; brain; neuronal-released GABA
  32. The entry of chloride, carrying a negative charge, ____________ the synapse , making it ___________, and _________ transmission at this site.
    hyperpolarizes; less excitable; inhibits
  33. Certain drugs that depress the CNS do so by acting in conjunction with _________ at chloride channel receptors to enhance __(3)__.
    GABA; chloride channel opening, synaptic hyper polarization, and inhibition.
  34. Certain potassium channels in the heart are linked to __________ by _________.
    cholinergic, muscarinic receptors; G protein
  35. Release of __________ from the vagus nerve can slow the heart via opening of ____________, which decrease the rate of __________; _________ drugs, like _________, block these receptors to increase _______.
    acetylcholine; potassium channels; pacemaker firing; antimuscarinic drugs; atropine

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