Health case studies
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What is HIV/AIDS a case study for?
An infectious disease
What is cancer a case study for?
A non-communicable disease
define: infectious disease
An illness caused by pathogenic micro-organisms, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi, which can be spread directly or indirectly from one person to another
What is the difference between HIV and AIDS?
- HIV is a retrovirus that infects the cells in the immune system by impairing their function. This makes a person more susceptible to infection.
- The most advanced stage of HIV is AIDS, which can take up to 15 years to develop.
What are antiretroviral drugs?
Medicine that can slow down the process of HIV developing into AIDS and allow people a relatively normal life. Usually funded by charities
How is HIV transmitted? (4)
- Through unprotected sex
- transfusion of contaminated blood
- sharing contaminated needles
- from breastfeeding mother to child
- during pregnancy from mother to child
Approximately how many people in the world are there living with HIV?
Approximately how many people in the world are there who are newly effected with HIV?
What percentage of people in Sub-Saharan Africa have HIV?
5.2% (highest in world)
How many people have died as a result of AIDS?
How many people are there living with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa?
What year was AIDS first identified?
What has the US done to try and reduce the transmission of HIV/AIDS?
Contraception campaigns, particularly in gay relationships
Which continent has the lowest number of HIV positive adults?
What are the symptoms of HIV? (3)
- weight loss
- frequent fever and sweats
- lymph node enlargement
- yeast infections
- persistent skin rashes or flaky skin
What are the symptoms of AIDS? (3)
- diarrhea lasting for more than a week
- vision loss
- nausea, abdominal cramps, and vomiting
- seizures or lack of coordination
- memory loss, and confusion
- severe headaches and neck stiffness
- development of various cancers
How many children have been orphaned as a result of their parents dying of HIV/AIDS?
Describe the global distribution of HIV/AIDS
Highest concentration is Sub-Saharan Africa, followed by South Asia
The Americas and Central Asia also have high numbers in comparison to North Africa, Oceania and Europe
All over the world, it is mainly young adults who are affected. Increasing numbers of children being born with HIV because their mothers have it
How is HIV/AIDS transmitted in Asia/the Caribbean?
- Sex trade/ prostitution
- unprotected sex
- approx. 10% of asian men pay for sex
What has been done to reduce the transmission of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa? (6)
- Distribution of contraception (condoms)
- Education on HIV
- Advertisement campaigns encouraging people get a health check
- Increased HIV testing
- Improvement of blood safety in healthcare
- Providing mothers with formula milk, not breastmilk
What is the effect of HIV/AIDS on the economy of an area? (4)
- Work force reduced as people (especially men) too weak to work
- Mining sector productivity decreased
- GDP estimated to fall by 20% by 2020
- Food production decreased
What are the social consequences of HIV? (5)
- Orphanages needed for orphaned children
- Lack of service providers such as teachers and doctors
- No income due to not being able to work
- People may turn to crime to get what they need (food, money)
- Life expectancy decreases, in some areas as much as 25 years
What are the environmental consequences of HIV/AIDS?
- Increase in poverty stricken areas
- Neglected farmland
- Degradation of land due to deteriorating management
What are the social impacts of cancer?
- Loss of professionals
- Grief and depression of the patient and friends/family
- Decrease in body image, amputations and disfigurements
- Payment of treatment, if you don't have life insurance and live in america for example
- Loss of energy and memory loss due as a side-effect of treatment
What the economic impacts of cancer?
- Funding treatment
- Housing if people lose their jobs or can't work
- 1% of American GDP is lost each year due to cancer deaths
- More jobs are created in cancer research
What is the approximate cost of global economic cost of new cancer cases?
- $305 billion
- (69% within the US)
How many people die from cancer each year?
Where are 70% of all new cancer diagnoses made each year?
In low income countries
Describe the global distribution of cancer
- Disease of affluence = found primarily in higher income countries, more developed
- Australia is an anomaly as it is developed but has low cancer rates
- India and China are less developed but have high levels of cancer, anomalies
Why is cancer more prevalent in MEDCs than LEDCs? (3)
- Detection is better, healthcare higher
- Lifestyle in MEDCs, smoking drinking - not found in LEDCs
- MEDCs have older populations, more chance
How are inner city and rural areas different in terms of health?
- Inner city areas:
- high morbidity rates, younger population, need for large A+E, large maternity wards
- Rural areas:
- Tend to have older population, high morbidity rates, need for geriatric and care homes
What is the UK average age?
With what factor do low house prices correlate with?
What is deprivation?
When a person's quality of life or living standards are below a level which is considered reasonable by society
Where in the UK can you find the lowest life expectancy?
- Glasgow, Scotland
- (only place less than 70 years)
Are links between occupation and age in relation to morbidity always right?
Is the incidence of heart disease in London below or above average?
Below average, in London there is a higher incidence of strokes
What is Doncaster a case study for?
Implications for the provision of healthcare in one location
What vital stats are lower in Doncaster than the national average? (6)
- Life expectancy
- Smoking related deaths
- Heart disease
How many years lower is the life expectancy for men living in deprived areas of Doncaster, than for men living in least deprived areas?
In Doncaster, is the number of physically active adults lower, higher or the same as the nation average?
About the same
In Doncaster, are crime rates lower or higher than the national average?
What percentage of students in Doncaster get 5 GCSEs graded A*-C?
(national average is 53.4%)
What does the Fruit into Schools programme do? (Doncaster)
Gives children up to the age of 7 one portion of fruit or veg a day
Why might people not buy healthy food options in Doncaster? (3)
- Fruit and veg are more expensive
- Don't know how to cook
- Easier to buy ready meals
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