Diagnosis of Parasites

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Anonymous
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300775
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Diagnosis of Parasites
Updated:
2015-04-14 15:16:19
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Parasites Diagnosis Sampling
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Vet Med - Module 12
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  1. Which is more specific for diagnosing parasites: antigen or antibody?
    Antigen
  2. Which signifies active infection: antigen or antibody?
    Antigen
  3. What three things should a diagnostic test be?
    Sensitive, specific and reliable
  4. Many gusto-intestinal worms are diagnosed by detection of ... in stool?
    eggs
  5. What can be used to concentrate and count faecal eggs?
    McMasters slide and solution
  6. Describe how a McMasters slide is used
    The nematode eggs are floated in the McMasters solution so they can be counted as the number of eggs present per grid
  7. What parasite produces this type of egg?
    Toxicara leonina (smooth egg shell)
  8. What type of parasite produces this type of egg?
    Toxicara canis/cati (rough pitted egg shell)
  9. What type of parasite produces this egg?
    Either Anyclostoma or Uncinaria (typical 'strongyle' egg)
  10. What type of parasite produces this egg?
    Trichuris (bipolar plugs)
  11. What other technique can be used to collect nematode larvae from faecal samples?
    Baermann concentration
  12. Identify this parasite
    Angiostrongylus vasorum (characteristic tail with a sub-terminal spine)
  13. What type of tests are there to identify Angiostrongylus vasorum?
    • Antigen test
    • PCR test (but only in research)
  14. What type of parasite produces this egg?
    • Tapeworms - Taenia or Echinoccus species (thick egg shel with radial striations)
  15. Identify this parasite
    Toxoplasma gondii
  16. Which animal is an important reservoir for Toxoplasma gondii?
    Cats
  17. Is toxoplasma gondii zoonotic?  If yes, who is most at risk?
    Yes - pregnant women (it causes abortion in pregnant women and sheep)
  18. Identify this parasite
    Neospora caninum oocyst
  19. Identify this parasite
    Giardia trophozite (this stage usually found intracellularly)
  20. True or false: Cryptosporidium is zoonotic?
    True
  21. Why is Cryptosporidium difficult to detect in unstained faecal samples?
    Due to its small size
  22. How can we improve the detection of Cryptosporidium?
    Ziehl-Nielsen staining - stains Cryptosporidium bright red
  23. What other methods can be used to detect Cryptosporidium?
    • Immunofluorescent antibody test
    • Detect antigens in the faeces using an ELISA
    • PCR based assays (research only)
  24. What type of parasites are commonly detected using blood smears?
    Protozoan parasites eg Theileria, Leishmania, Babesia 
  25. Identify the parasite
    Trypomastigote stages of Trypanosoma
  26. Identify the parasite
    Babesia in RBCs
  27. Identify the parasite
    Theileria in lymphocytes
  28. Identify the parasite
    Leishmania in macrophages
  29. Identify the parasite
    Mf of Dirofilaria 
  30. List some positives and negatives of PCR-based diagnosis
    • Positive - very specific, very sensitive (needs small amounts of material), fast, can differentiate mixed infections
    • Negatives - easy to contaminate, can be quantified but need more sophisticated thermal cycler
  31. Many of these eggs were found in the faeces of a puppy suffering severe anaemia.  What are they likely to be and why? a) Ancylostoma caninum b) Unicinaria stenocephala c) Toxocara canis d) Toxascaris leonina e) Trichuris vulpis 
    a) Ancylostoma caninum - it is a blood sucking parasite
  32. This specimen was found in the blood of a dog recently arrived from Tansania.  What is the intermediate host of this parasite? a) Ticks b) Molluscs c) No IMH d) Mosquitoes e) Rodents
    d) Mosquitoes
  33. This egg was found in the faeces of a kitten.  What is it and what was the most likely route of infection? a) Ancylostoma caninum b) Unicaria stenocephala c) Toxocara canis d) Toxacaris leonina e) Toxocara cati
    e) Toxocara cati - transmammary infection
  34. These small round objects were seen in the faeces of a cat.  What are they likely to be and what advice should you give the owner? a) Oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii b) Eggs of Toxocara cati c) Plant cells d) Giardia cysts e) Isospara cysts
    a) Oocysts of Toxoplamsa gondii - do not let pregnant women or immunocompromised people clean the cat litter tray
  35. This specimen was found on a dog.  Identify it: a) Tick b) Louse c) Mite d) Flea e) Spider
    a) Tick
  36. What time of year are Ixodes ticks most active and give the name of the paretic species that can be transmitted by this species of tick? a) Spring b) Autumn c) Winter d) Summer e) Spring, summer & autumn
    a) Spring
  37. This is a baermann funnel, routinely used to concentrate larvae of parasitic nematodes from faecal or other samples.  Larvae with a small subterminal spine near the tail were found in the faeces of a dog with a subcutaneous haematoma.  What are they likely to be? a) Oslerus osleri b) Angiostrongylus vasorum c) Dictyocaulus viviparus d) Ancylostoma caninum e) Uncinaria stenocephala 
    b) Angiostrongylus vasorum 
  38. A sheepdog passed many of these eggs in faeces.  What are they and what is the most important intermediate host of this parasite? a) Taenia saginata b) Taenia solum c) Echinococcus granulosus d) Dipylidium caninum e) Toxocara cati
    c) Echinococcus granulosus - sheep
  39. Which could be a sign that your pet has fleas? a) pale gums b) paralysis c) urinary problems d) diarrhoea e) breathing problems
    a) pale gums
  40. These organisms were found in the blood stream of a dog.  What are they likely to be and how would the animal have been infected? a) Trypanosoma spp. b) Leishmania spp. c) Dirofilaria immitis d) Babesia spp. e) Theileria spp.
    d) Babesia spp. - from a tick feeding on the dog
  41. An 8wk old, female mixed breed puppy was brought to your practice for her first examination and vaccinations.  A faecal sample was also brought in for a routine examination.  Upon gross examination of the faecal sample you note that the faeces are normal in colour but semi-formed in consistency.  A fresh rectal smear was taken and examined.  What is the name of this specimen and what is its lifecycle stage? a) Isospora oocysts b) Giardia trophozoites c) Fungal spore d) Toxoplasma gondii oocysts e) Leishmania amastigotes
    b) Giardia trophozoites 

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