Anatomy- Pelvis Part 1.txt

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Mawad
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300785
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Anatomy- Pelvis Part 1.txt
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2015-04-14 16:39:03
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vetmed anatomy pelvis
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  1. Hip bone.
    os coxae (pl. ossa coxarum)
  2. What are the components of the bony pelvis?
    ossa coxarum, sacrum, first 3 caudal vertebrae
  3. What is the slope of the pelvis? What is its significance?
    line drawn from the tuber coxae to the ischiatic tuberosity; the greater trochanter SHOULD cross this line, and if it doesn't, it may indicate fracture or luxation.
  4. Where is the internal obturator m.? What are its components?
    covers obturator foramen on the inside of the pelvic cavity; iliac portion and ischiopubic portion
  5. Where is the external obturator m.?
    covers obturator foramen on the outside of the pelvic cavity
  6. Where is the gemelli m.?
    under the tendon of the internal obturator m.
  7. What are the dorsal, ventral, and lateral boundaries of the pelvic inlet?
    • dorsal- sacral promontory
    • ventral- cranial edge of the pubis
    • lateral- arcuate line
  8. What is the conjugate diameter of the pelvic inlet?
    line passing from the sacrum to pubis
  9. What is the transverse diameter of the pelvic inlet?
    laterally, the widest portion
  10. What are the dorsal, ventral, and lateral boundaries of the pelvic outlet?
    • dorsal- first 3 caudal vertebrae
    • ventral- ischial arch
    • lateral- sacrosciatic ligament
  11. What is the sacrum?
    5 fused vertebrae
  12. What and where is the promontory of the sacrum?
    on the ventral surface of S1; it is a palpation landmark for the pelvic inlet
  13. What is the median sacral crest?
    spinous processes of the sacral vertebrae (usually not fused in horses)
  14. What is the lateral sacral crest?
    fusion of transverse processes of the sacral vertebrae
  15. Where does the spinal cord stop?
    at S2
  16. What exits the dorsal foramina of the sacrum?
    sacral spinal nn.
  17. What exits the ventral foramina of the sacrum? What is it aka?
    sacral spinal nn.; pelvic foramina
  18. What is the sacral canal?
    terminal portion of the vertebral canal
  19. What are the peritoneal pouches?
    blind end of peritoneum as it reflects around the abdominal organs and wall
  20. What peritoneal pouch is the most dorsal? Where is it located?
    rectogenital pouch- b/w rectum and genital organs
  21. What is the middle peritoneal pouch? Where is it located?
    vesicogenital pouch- b/w bladder and uterus/genital fold
  22. What is the most ventral peritoneal pouch? Where is it located?
    pubovesical pouch- b/w pubis and bladder
  23. What are the poles of the kidneys?
    cranial or caudal extremities
  24. What is the capsule of the kidneys?
    dense connective tissue that is surrounded by an adipose capsule
  25. What is the topographic location of the right kidney?
    transverse processes of T16-L1
  26. What is the topographic location of the left kidney?
    transverse processes of T18-L3
  27. What is the hilus of the kidney?
    topographic region on ventral surface of kidney where the renal vessels and nerves and ureter enters or leaves the kidney
  28. What is the sinus of the kidney?
    space filled with fat on the ventral aspect of the kidney in the hilus
  29. What is the pelvis of the kidney?
    dilated beginning of the ureter that secretes mucous (so does proximal third of ureter) within the renal sinus
  30. What is the renal crest?
    edge of tissue located dorsal to the renal pelvis; part of the medulla
  31. What is the terminal recess of the kidney? What is its function?
    extension of the renal pelvis into the poles of the kidney; functions to drain the pole of the kidney
  32. What is the accessory renal artery?
    comes off the aorta and enters the caudal pole of the kidney; inconstant
  33. Where is the adrenal gland? How do you distinguish it from a lymph node?
    next to the kidney; it has a very obvious cortex and medulla, unlike a lymph node
  34. What is contained in the left and right lateral ligaments of the bladder?
    contains the round ligament of the bladder, which is a vestigial remnant of the umbilical a.
  35. Where and what is the median ligament of the bladder?
    runs along midline; splits pubovesical pouch into right and left parts
  36. What are the components of the bladder?
    apex, body, and neck
  37. What is the apex of the bladder aka?
    vertex
  38. Describe patent urachus.
    urachus normally regresses and closes, but with patent, it remains open and dribbles urine through the umbilicus
  39. What is the trigone of the bladder?
    triangle b/w the openings of the ureters and the internal urethral orifice
  40. What is the internal urethral orifice?
    neck of bladder joins with body of bladder
  41. What is the external urethral orifice?
    exit of the urethra out of the body
  42. Where are the ureters in a male?
    within a flap of peritoneum called the genital fold
  43. Where are the ureters in a female?
    within the broad ligament of the uterus
  44. What arteries are at the termination of the aorta?
    deep circumflex iliac a., external iliac a., internal iliac a.
  45. What does the deep circumflex iliac a. branch to?
    cranial and caudal branches of the deep circumflex iliac a.
  46. Where is the external iliac a. located topographically?
    L4 or L5
  47. Where is the internal iliac a. located topographically?
    L5 or L6
  48. here are the medial circumflex iliac lymph nodes located? What do they drain?
    at the origin of the deep circumflex iliac a.; drain the pelvic viscera and testis in males
  49. Inflammation of the testes.
    orchitis
  50. Where are the lateral circumflex iliac lymph nodes located? What do they drain?
    at the bifurcation of the deep circumflex iliac a. to cranial and caudal branches; drain the flank and thigh
  51. Inflammation of the stifle.
    gonitis
  52. Describe the kidneys of small ruminants and bovines.
    • Small ruminants: unipyramidal
    • Bovine: multipyramidal
  53. The major calices are aka...
    cranial and caudal, or principal, branches of the ureter
  54. Is the renal pelvis present in the kidney of the large or small ruminants?
    only mall ruminants; bovines have major and minor calices instead
  55. Describe the flow of urine in the bovine kidney.
    papilla produces urine, minor calyx collects urine then drips to major calyx
  56. How is the urinary bladder held in place?
    median and lateral ligaments of the bladder
  57. The bladder opens to the vagina through the ______________.
    external urethral orifice
  58. Blind-ended pouch which should be avoided when attempting to pass a urinary catheter.
    suburethral diverticulum
  59. The skin of the scrotum has...
    sebaceous and sweat glands
  60. What are the layers of the scrotum from superficial to deep?
    skin, dartos, fascia, parietal vaginal tunic
  61. What layer forms the scrotal septum?
    dartos
  62. The parietal vaginal tunic is a continuation of the ______________.
    peritoneum
  63. The equine testes are located ___________ and oriented in the ____________ region.
    horizontally; prepubic
  64. The tunica albuginea is located deep to...
    the parietal and visceral vaginal tunics
  65. What is the tunica albuginea?
    outer connective tissue directly apposed to the testicular tissue holding the parenchyma
  66. What are the parts of the epididymis?
    head (cranial pole of testis), body, tail (caudal pole)
  67. Convoluted testicular vein.
    pampiniform plexus
  68. The ligament of the tail of the epididymis connects...
    tail to parietal vaginal tunic
  69. What is the ligament of the tail of the epididymis analogous to in the female?
    round ligament of the uterus
  70. The proper ligament of the testis connects...
    the tail of the epididymis to the testicle
  71. What are the contents of the spermatic cord?
    testicular a., v., n., and lymphatics ductus deferens, deferential a. and v.; visceral vaginal tunic; [sometimes clinicians include] parietal vaginal tunic and cremaster m.
  72. The connection b/w the mesoductus to the mesorchium.
    mesofuniculus
  73. What is the mesorchium?
    visceral vaginal tunic surrounding the testicular a., v., n., and lymphatics
  74. What is the mesoductus?
    visceral vaginal tunic that covers the ductus deferens, deferential a. and v.
  75. Describe closed castration.
    incise scrotum, tie and crush entire spermatic cord
  76. Describe open castration.
    open parietal vaginal tunic; better access to individually ligate vessel
  77. The tunica albuginea is ___________ in nature. [????]
    musculocavernous
  78. What are the 3 parts of the penis?
    root, body, glans
  79. What components make up the root of the penis?
    left and right crura that attach to the ischial arch
  80. What are the 3 types of erectile tissue?
    corpus cavernosum penis, corpus spongiosum penis,corpus spongiosum glandis
  81. Where is the corpus cavernosum found?
    crus and body of penis
  82. Where is the ischiocavernosus muscle?
    covers each crus of the penis attached to the ventral and somewhat dorsal ischium
  83. Where is the corpus spongiosum penis?
    starts at level of ischial arch b/w crura and surrounds urethra throughout the body of the penis
  84. Where is the bulbospongiosus muscle?
    runs ventrally to the body of the penis
  85. 5 components of the glans penis?
    dorsal process, corona glandis, urethral process, fossa glandis, urethral sinus
  86. The is the urethral process of the penis?
    urethra extending beyond the end of the penis
  87. What preputial folds are present in the horse?
    internal preputial fold, external preputial fold
  88. What does the internal preputial fold contain?
    glans of the penis
  89. What is the preputial orifice?
    opening of the external preputial fold
  90. What is the preputial ring?
    opening of the internal preputial fold

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