Anatomy- Pelvis Part 1.txt
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Anatomy- Pelvis Part 1.txt
vetmed anatomy pelvis
os coxae (pl. ossa coxarum)
What are the components of the bony pelvis?
ossa coxarum, sacrum, first 3 caudal vertebrae
What is the slope of the pelvis? What is its significance?
line drawn from the tuber coxae to the ischiatic tuberosity; the greater trochanter SHOULD cross this line, and if it doesn't, it may indicate fracture or luxation.
Where is the internal obturator m.? What are its components?
covers obturator foramen on the inside of the pelvic cavity; iliac portion and ischiopubic portion
Where is the external obturator m.?
covers obturator foramen on the outside of the pelvic cavity
Where is the gemelli m.?
under the tendon of the internal obturator m.
What are the dorsal, ventral, and lateral boundaries of the pelvic inlet?
dorsal- sacral promontory
ventral- cranial edge of the pubis
lateral- arcuate line
What is the conjugate diameter of the pelvic inlet?
line passing from the sacrum to pubis
What is the transverse diameter of the pelvic inlet?
laterally, the widest portion
What are the dorsal, ventral, and lateral boundaries of the pelvic outlet?
dorsal- first 3 caudal vertebrae
ventral- ischial arch
lateral- sacrosciatic ligament
What is the sacrum?
5 fused vertebrae
What and where is the promontory of the sacrum?
on the ventral surface of S1; it is a palpation landmark for the pelvic inlet
What is the median sacral crest?
spinous processes of the sacral vertebrae (usually not fused in horses)
What is the lateral sacral crest?
fusion of transverse processes of the sacral vertebrae
Where does the spinal cord stop?
What exits the dorsal foramina of the sacrum?
sacral spinal nn.
What exits the ventral foramina of the sacrum? What is it aka?
sacral spinal nn.; pelvic foramina
What is the sacral canal?
terminal portion of the vertebral canal
What are the peritoneal pouches?
blind end of peritoneum as it reflects around the abdominal organs and wall
What peritoneal pouch is the most dorsal? Where is it located?
rectogenital pouch- b/w rectum and genital organs
What is the middle peritoneal pouch? Where is it located?
vesicogenital pouch- b/w bladder and uterus/genital fold
What is the most ventral peritoneal pouch? Where is it located?
pubovesical pouch- b/w pubis and bladder
What are the poles of the kidneys?
cranial or caudal extremities
What is the capsule of the kidneys?
dense connective tissue that is surrounded by an adipose capsule
What is the topographic location of the right kidney?
transverse processes of T16-L1
What is the topographic location of the left kidney?
transverse processes of T18-L3
What is the hilus of the kidney?
topographic region on ventral surface of kidney where the renal vessels and nerves and ureter enters or leaves the kidney
What is the sinus of the kidney?
space filled with fat on the ventral aspect of the kidney in the hilus
What is the pelvis of the kidney?
dilated beginning of the ureter that secretes mucous (so does proximal third of ureter) within the renal sinus
What is the renal crest?
edge of tissue located dorsal to the renal pelvis; part of the medulla
What is the terminal recess of the kidney? What is its function?
extension of the renal pelvis into the poles of the kidney; functions to drain the pole of the kidney
What is the accessory renal artery?
comes off the aorta and enters the caudal pole of the kidney; inconstant
Where is the adrenal gland? How do you distinguish it from a lymph node?
next to the kidney; it has a very obvious cortex and medulla, unlike a lymph node
What is contained in the left and right lateral ligaments of the bladder?
contains the round ligament of the bladder, which is a vestigial remnant of the umbilical a.
Where and what is the median ligament of the bladder?
runs along midline; splits pubovesical pouch into right and left parts
What are the components of the bladder?
apex, body, and neck
What is the apex of the bladder aka?
Describe patent urachus.
urachus normally regresses and closes, but with patent, it remains open and dribbles urine through the umbilicus
What is the trigone of the bladder?
triangle b/w the openings of the ureters and the internal urethral orifice
What is the internal urethral orifice?
neck of bladder joins with body of bladder
What is the external urethral orifice?
exit of the urethra out of the body
Where are the ureters in a male?
within a flap of peritoneum called the genital fold
Where are the ureters in a female?
within the broad ligament of the uterus
What arteries are at the termination of the aorta?
deep circumflex iliac a., external iliac a., internal iliac a.
What does the deep circumflex iliac a. branch to?
cranial and caudal branches of the deep circumflex iliac a.
Where is the external iliac a. located topographically?
L4 or L5
Where is the internal iliac a. located topographically?
L5 or L6
here are the medial circumflex iliac lymph nodes located? What do they drain?
at the origin of the deep circumflex iliac a.; drain the pelvic viscera and testis in males
Inflammation of the testes.
Where are the lateral circumflex iliac lymph nodes located? What do they drain?
at the bifurcation of the deep circumflex iliac a. to cranial and caudal branches; drain the flank and thigh
Inflammation of the stifle.
Describe the kidneys of small ruminants and bovines.
The major calices are aka...
cranial and caudal, or principal, branches of the ureter
Is the renal pelvis present in the kidney of the large or small ruminants?
only mall ruminants; bovines have major and minor calices instead
Describe the flow of urine in the bovine kidney.
papilla produces urine, minor calyx collects urine then drips to major calyx
How is the urinary bladder held in place?
median and lateral ligaments of the bladder
The bladder opens to the vagina through the ______________.
external urethral orifice
Blind-ended pouch which should be avoided when attempting to pass a urinary catheter.
The skin of the scrotum has...
sebaceous and sweat glands
What are the layers of the scrotum from superficial to deep?
skin, dartos, fascia, parietal vaginal tunic
What layer forms the scrotal septum?
The parietal vaginal tunic is a continuation of the ______________.
The equine testes are located ___________ and oriented in the ____________ region.
The tunica albuginea is located deep to...
the parietal and visceral vaginal tunics
What is the tunica albuginea?
outer connective tissue directly apposed to the testicular tissue holding the parenchyma
What are the parts of the epididymis?
head (cranial pole of testis), body, tail (caudal pole)
Convoluted testicular vein.
The ligament of the tail of the epididymis connects...
tail to parietal vaginal tunic
What is the ligament of the tail of the epididymis analogous to in the female?
round ligament of the uterus
The proper ligament of the testis connects...
the tail of the epididymis to the testicle
What are the contents of the spermatic cord?
testicular a., v., n., and lymphatics ductus deferens, deferential a. and v.; visceral vaginal tunic; [sometimes clinicians include] parietal vaginal tunic and cremaster m.
The connection b/w the mesoductus to the mesorchium.
What is the mesorchium?
visceral vaginal tunic surrounding the testicular a., v., n., and lymphatics
What is the mesoductus?
visceral vaginal tunic that covers the ductus deferens, deferential a. and v.
Describe closed castration.
incise scrotum, tie and crush entire spermatic cord
Describe open castration.
open parietal vaginal tunic; better access to individually ligate vessel
The tunica albuginea is ___________ in nature. [????]
What are the 3 parts of the penis?
root, body, glans
What components make up the root of the penis?
left and right crura that attach to the ischial arch
What are the 3 types of erectile tissue?
corpus cavernosum penis, corpus spongiosum penis,corpus spongiosum glandis
Where is the corpus cavernosum found?
crus and body of penis
Where is the ischiocavernosus muscle?
covers each crus of the penis attached to the ventral and somewhat dorsal ischium
Where is the corpus spongiosum penis?
starts at level of ischial arch b/w crura and surrounds urethra throughout the body of the penis
Where is the bulbospongiosus muscle?
runs ventrally to the body of the penis
5 components of the glans penis?
dorsal process, corona glandis, urethral process, fossa glandis, urethral sinus
The is the urethral process of the penis?
urethra extending beyond the end of the penis
What preputial folds are present in the horse?
internal preputial fold, external preputial fold
What does the internal preputial fold contain?
glans of the penis
What is the preputial orifice?
opening of the external preputial fold
What is the preputial ring?
opening of the internal preputial fold