Anatomy- Pelvis Part 2.txt

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Anatomy- Pelvis Part 2.txt
2015-04-14 16:39:32
vetmed anatomy pelvis

vetmed pelvis part 2
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  1. What is smegma and the bean?
    secretions and cels (smegma); condensation of smegma in the urethral sinus (bean)
  2. What are the functions of the accessory genital glands?
    produce hormones and secretions that are necessary for sperm maturation
  3. When doing a rectal palpation, in what order will you feel the accessory genital glands (caudal to cranial)?
    bulbourethral gland, prostate gland, seminal vesicles, ampulla
  4. Where do the ducts of the bulbourethral gland open?
    into the dorsal aspect of the urethra at ischial arch
  5. Where do the prostatic ducts empty?
    lateral to colliculus seminalis, on either side
  6. The left and right wings of the prostate gland are connected by the ___________.
  7. Where do the ducts of the seminal vesicles open?
    on ejaculatory orifice on the colliculus seminalis w/ the ducts of the ampulla
  8. Where do the ducts of the ampulla empty?
    fuse with ducts of seminal vesicles and empty on the ejaculatory orifice on the colliculus seminalis
  9. What is the ampulla??
    dilated terminal portion of the ductus deferens
  10. What does the genital fold contain in males?
    left and right ampulla, cranial half of seminal vesicles, ureters, [sometimes] uterus masculinus (vestigial rounded tube b/w the ampulla)
  11. What is the ejaculatory orifice?
    combined opening for ampulla and vesicular glands
  12. What muscle covers the initial aspect of the urethra?
    urethralis m.
  13. The continuation of the urethralis m. over the bulbourethral glands.
    bulboglandularis m.
  14. The continuation of the bulboglandularis m. over the bulb of the penis and corpus spongioum penis.
    bulbospongiosus m.
  15. The muscle that overlies the corpus cavernosum.
    ischiocavernosus m.
  16. The muscles that circles around the anus and goes down the ventral aspect of the body of the penis.
    retractor penis m.
  17. In the male horse, the internal pudendal a. becomes the _______________, which branches to the _____________ and the _______________.
    artery of the penis; artery of the bulb of the penis; dorsal artery of the penis
  18. In the male horse, the obturator a. becomes the ______________, which branches to the ________________ and the _______________.
    middle artery of the penis; deep artery of the penis; dorsal artery of the penis
  19. In the male horse, the external pudendal a. gives of the ____________ after it exit from the superficial inguinal ring; then, it becomes the ___________, which bifurcates to the _____________.
    superficial caudal epigastric a.; cranial artery of the penis; dorsal artery of the penis
  20. What arteries make up the components of the dorsal artery of the penis?
    internal pudendal a., obturator a., external pudendal a.
  21. What is the sympathetic innervation to the pelvic cavity?
    hypogastric n.
  22. What is the parasympathetic innervation to the pelvic cavity?
    pelvic n.
  23. The dorsal n. of the penis is a continuation of the ______________; its function is _________.
    pudendal n.; sensory
  24. The genitofemoral n. comes primarily from...
    ventral branches of L3
  25. What is the function of the genitofemoral n.?
    sensory to scrotum and medial thigh
  26. The testicular n. originates from...
    caudal mesenteric ganglion
  27. What lymph nodes drain the penis and scrotum?
    drain into superficial inguinal nodes
  28. What lymph nodes that drain the testis and epididymis?
    medial iliac lymph nodes
  29. What lymph nodes drain the thigh?
    subiliac lymph nodes, which rain into the lateral iliac lymph nodes
  30. Inflammation of the penis.
  31. Inflammation of the testis and epididymis.
    orchitis and epididymitis
  32. Mesentery that suspends the repro tract in the female.
    broad ligament of the uterus
  33. What are the components of the broad ligament of the uterus?
    mesometrium, mesovarium, mesosalpinx
  34. What is the mesometrium?
    portion of the broad ligament of the uterus that attaches to the uterus
  35. What is contained within the mesometrium?
    round ligament of the uterus
  36. What is the mesovarium?
    portion of the broad ligament of the uterus attaches to the ovary
  37. What is the mesosalpinx?
    portion of the broad ligament of the bladder attached to the uterine tube
  38. What forms the wall of the ovarian bursa?
  39. Where are the ovaries located topographically?
    halfway b/w the last rib and the tuber coxae
  40. What is the ovulation fossa?
    concave surface of the ovary where the egg is released
  41. What is the ovarian hilus?
    convex surface of the ovary, where the ovarian vessels enter and leave
  42. What is the ovarian bursa?
    space b/w the mesosalpinx and ovary
  43. What ligament connects the ovary to the uterus?
    proper ligament of the ovary
  44. Grape-like clusters of cysts that are remnants of the developing renal system.
    Epoöphoron, Paroöphoron
  45. Where are the Epoöphoron and Paroöphoron located?
    in the mesovarium
  46. What is the main ovarian blood supply?
    primary ovarian a. from aorta
  47. What is the ancillary blood supply to the uterus?
    uterine branch of the ovarian a.
  48. What are the infundibulum and fimbriae of the uterine tube?
    infundibulum- funnel-shaped beginning of the uterine tube; fimbriae- finger-like projections of the infuncidbulum
  49. What are the openings of the uterine tube?
    abdominal ostium (entrance), uterine ostium (exit)
  50. What are the components of the uterus?
    horns, body, cervix
  51. What are contained on the cervical canal?
    internal uterine orifice and external uterine orifice
  52. What is the internal uterine orifice?
    entrance to cervical canal from uterine body
  53. What is the external uterine orifice?
    exit from the cervical canal to the vagina
  54. What is the vaginal portion of the cervix?
    distal end of the cervix that protrudes into the vagina
  55. What is the main supply to the uterus?
    uterine a.
  56. From where does the uterine a. arise?
    USUALLY external iliac a.; sometimes aorta
  57. What is the ancillary blood supply to the uterus?
    uterine branch of the ovarian a. and uterine branch of the vaginal a.
  58. Describe equine placentation.
    diffuse placentation
  59. What is the fornix of the vagina?
    cranial blind end of the vagina; space surrounding vaginal portion of the cervix
  60. What is the transverse fold of the vaginal?
    ridge of mucosa that divides vagina and vestibule (aka hymen)
  61. Where is the constrictor vestibuli m.?
    surrounds the vestibule, which contains the vestibular bulb
  62. What is the vestibular bulb?
    cavernous erectile tissue buried within the constrictor vestibuli m.
  63. What vestibular glands to female horses have and where do they open?
    minor open on the floor of the vestibule, major located in the dorsolateral wall of the vestibule
  64. Where is the external urethral orifice located in female horses?
    in the cranial part of the vestibule about 12cm from the opening of the repro tract
  65. What is the vulvar cleft aka?
    rima pudenda
  66. What is the vulvar cleft?
    passage b/w the left and right labia
  67. What are the commissures of the vulva? What is contained within them?
    dorsal (nothing) and ventral (clitoris) commissures
  68. What are the parts of the clitoris?
    crura (buried), body, glands
  69. What part of the clitoris protrudes into the clitoral fossa?
  70. Transverse fold of the clitoral fossa.
    preputium clitoridis
  71. What is contagious equine metritus?
    infection with Taylorella equigenitalia, which lives in the left and right lateral sinuses and medial sinus
  72. What is winking?
    protrusion of glans of clitoris in and out of the ventral commissure during estrus
  73. Where is the constrictor vulvae m.?
    superficial to the constrictor vestibuli m.
  74. Where is the preputial orifice located in the male ruminant?
    ventral abdominal wall
  75. In the ruminant, the cranial portion of the preputial cavity houses ____________ and the penis is located ___________.
    nothing; caudally
  76. The cranial preputial muscle, the _____________, pulls the sheath cranially; the caudal preputial muscle, the _____________, pulls the sheath caudally.
    preputial protractor m. (covers the penis); preputial retractor m. (exposes the penis)
  77. In the ruminant, the testicles are located __________; the tail of the epididymis is located __________; the head of the epididymis is located _________.
    vertically ventrally; dorsally
  78. The ruminant penis is ___________ in nature.
  79. In the ruminant, each crus is covered by the ________________.
    ischiocavernosus m.
  80. The body of the ruminant penis has a characteristic __________ just caudal to the scrotum.
    sigmoid flexure
  81. What is the penile raphae?
    in bovines, remnant of the frenulum b/w the penis and prepuce during development (usually regresses)
  82. Where do stones frequently lodge in the ovine and caprine penis?
    urethral process
  83. In the ruminant, the corpus cavernosum penis is primarily filled with _______________.
    connective tissue
  84. In bovines, where do urinary calculi frequently lodge?
    at the distal portion of the sigmoid flexure
  85. In ruminants, the ______________ covers the bulbourethral glands, unlike in horses.
    bulbospongiosus m. (horses have bulbourethralis m.)
  86. What are the parts of the bovine prostate gland?
    body and disseminate part
  87. The body of the bovine prostate is small and connected by an ______________.
  88. Describe the disseminate part of the bovine prostate gland.
    surrounds the urethra and is covered by the urethralis m.
  89. Describe the small ruminant prostate gland.
    only the disseminate part
  90. Where does the bulbourethral gland open in ruminants?
    urethral diverticulum in the dorsal wall of the urethra
  91. What would prevent a catheter from entering the pelvic portion of the urethra in ruminants?
    urethral diverticulum
  92. [Ruminant] After the __________ branches off, the a. of the penis becomes the _____________.
    Deep a. of the penis; dorsal a. of the penis
  93. [Ruminant] After the ____________ branches off, the internal pudendal a. becomes the ______________.
    ventral perineal a.; a. of the penis
  94. [Ruminant] After the _____________ branches off, the internal iliac a. becomes the ____________.
    caudal gluteal a.; internal pudendal a.
  95. [Ruminant] Where does the prostatic a. arise?
    internal iliac a.
  96. What branches off the a. of the penis?
    a. of the bulb, deep a. of the penis