Anatomy- Pelvis Part 2.txt
Card Set Information
Anatomy- Pelvis Part 2.txt
vetmed anatomy pelvis
vetmed pelvis part 2
What is smegma and the bean?
secretions and cels (smegma); condensation of smegma in the urethral sinus (bean)
What are the functions of the accessory genital glands?
produce hormones and secretions that are necessary for sperm maturation
When doing a rectal palpation, in what order will you feel the accessory genital glands (caudal to cranial)?
bulbourethral gland, prostate gland, seminal vesicles, ampulla
Where do the ducts of the bulbourethral gland open?
into the dorsal aspect of the urethra at ischial arch
Where do the prostatic ducts empty?
lateral to colliculus seminalis, on either side
The left and right wings of the prostate gland are connected by the ___________.
Where do the ducts of the seminal vesicles open?
on ejaculatory orifice on the colliculus seminalis w/ the ducts of the ampulla
Where do the ducts of the ampulla empty?
fuse with ducts of seminal vesicles and empty on the ejaculatory orifice on the colliculus seminalis
What is the ampulla??
dilated terminal portion of the ductus deferens
What does the genital fold contain in males?
left and right ampulla, cranial half of seminal vesicles, ureters, [sometimes] uterus masculinus (vestigial rounded tube b/w the ampulla)
What is the ejaculatory orifice?
combined opening for ampulla and vesicular glands
What muscle covers the initial aspect of the urethra?
The continuation of the urethralis m. over the bulbourethral glands.
The continuation of the bulboglandularis m. over the bulb of the penis and corpus spongioum penis.
The muscle that overlies the corpus cavernosum.
The muscles that circles around the anus and goes down the ventral aspect of the body of the penis.
retractor penis m.
In the male horse, the internal pudendal a. becomes the _______________, which branches to the _____________ and the _______________.
artery of the penis; artery of the bulb of the penis; dorsal artery of the penis
In the male horse, the obturator a. becomes the ______________, which branches to the ________________ and the _______________.
middle artery of the penis; deep artery of the penis; dorsal artery of the penis
In the male horse, the external pudendal a. gives of the ____________ after it exit from the superficial inguinal ring; then, it becomes the ___________, which bifurcates to the _____________.
superficial caudal epigastric a.; cranial artery of the penis; dorsal artery of the penis
What arteries make up the components of the dorsal artery of the penis?
internal pudendal a., obturator a., external pudendal a.
What is the sympathetic innervation to the pelvic cavity?
What is the parasympathetic innervation to the pelvic cavity?
The dorsal n. of the penis is a continuation of the ______________; its function is _________.
pudendal n.; sensory
The genitofemoral n. comes primarily from...
ventral branches of L3
What is the function of the genitofemoral n.?
sensory to scrotum and medial thigh
The testicular n. originates from...
caudal mesenteric ganglion
What lymph nodes drain the penis and scrotum?
drain into superficial inguinal nodes
What lymph nodes that drain the testis and epididymis?
medial iliac lymph nodes
What lymph nodes drain the thigh?
subiliac lymph nodes, which rain into the lateral iliac lymph nodes
Inflammation of the penis.
Inflammation of the testis and epididymis.
orchitis and epididymitis
Mesentery that suspends the repro tract in the female.
broad ligament of the uterus
What are the components of the broad ligament of the uterus?
mesometrium, mesovarium, mesosalpinx
What is the mesometrium?
portion of the broad ligament of the uterus that attaches to the uterus
What is contained within the mesometrium?
round ligament of the uterus
What is the mesovarium?
portion of the broad ligament of the uterus attaches to the ovary
What is the mesosalpinx?
portion of the broad ligament of the bladder attached to the uterine tube
What forms the wall of the ovarian bursa?
Where are the ovaries located topographically?
halfway b/w the last rib and the tuber coxae
What is the ovulation fossa?
concave surface of the ovary where the egg is released
What is the ovarian hilus?
convex surface of the ovary, where the ovarian vessels enter and leave
What is the ovarian bursa?
space b/w the mesosalpinx and ovary
What ligament connects the ovary to the uterus?
proper ligament of the ovary
Grape-like clusters of cysts that are remnants of the developing renal system.
Where are the Epoöphoron and Paroöphoron located?
in the mesovarium
What is the main ovarian blood supply?
primary ovarian a. from aorta
What is the ancillary blood supply to the uterus?
uterine branch of the ovarian a.
What are the infundibulum and fimbriae of the uterine tube?
infundibulum- funnel-shaped beginning of the uterine tube; fimbriae- finger-like projections of the infuncidbulum
What are the openings of the uterine tube?
abdominal ostium (entrance), uterine ostium (exit)
What are the components of the uterus?
horns, body, cervix
What are contained on the cervical canal?
internal uterine orifice and external uterine orifice
What is the internal uterine orifice?
entrance to cervical canal from uterine body
What is the external uterine orifice?
exit from the cervical canal to the vagina
What is the vaginal portion of the cervix?
distal end of the cervix that protrudes into the vagina
What is the main supply to the uterus?
From where does the uterine a. arise?
USUALLY external iliac a.; sometimes aorta
What is the ancillary blood supply to the uterus?
uterine branch of the ovarian a. and uterine branch of the vaginal a.
Describe equine placentation.
What is the fornix of the vagina?
cranial blind end of the vagina; space surrounding vaginal portion of the cervix
What is the transverse fold of the vaginal?
ridge of mucosa that divides vagina and vestibule (aka hymen)
Where is the constrictor vestibuli m.?
surrounds the vestibule, which contains the vestibular bulb
What is the vestibular bulb?
cavernous erectile tissue buried within the constrictor vestibuli m.
What vestibular glands to female horses have and where do they open?
minor open on the floor of the vestibule, major located in the dorsolateral wall of the vestibule
Where is the external urethral orifice located in female horses?
in the cranial part of the vestibule about 12cm from the opening of the repro tract
What is the vulvar cleft aka?
What is the vulvar cleft?
passage b/w the left and right labia
What are the commissures of the vulva? What is contained within them?
dorsal (nothing) and ventral (clitoris) commissures
What are the parts of the clitoris?
crura (buried), body, glands
What part of the clitoris protrudes into the clitoral fossa?
Transverse fold of the clitoral fossa.
What is contagious equine metritus?
infection with Taylorella equigenitalia, which lives in the left and right lateral sinuses and medial sinus
What is winking?
protrusion of glans of clitoris in and out of the ventral commissure during estrus
Where is the constrictor vulvae m.?
superficial to the constrictor vestibuli m.
Where is the preputial orifice located in the male ruminant?
ventral abdominal wall
In the ruminant, the cranial portion of the preputial cavity houses ____________ and the penis is located ___________.
The cranial preputial muscle, the _____________, pulls the sheath cranially; the caudal preputial muscle, the _____________, pulls the sheath caudally.
preputial protractor m. (covers the penis); preputial retractor m. (exposes the penis)
In the ruminant, the testicles are located __________; the tail of the epididymis is located __________; the head of the epididymis is located _________.
vertically ventrally; dorsally
The ruminant penis is ___________ in nature.
In the ruminant, each crus is covered by the ________________.
The body of the ruminant penis has a characteristic __________ just caudal to the scrotum.
What is the penile raphae?
in bovines, remnant of the frenulum b/w the penis and prepuce during development (usually regresses)
Where do stones frequently lodge in the ovine and caprine penis?
In the ruminant, the corpus cavernosum penis is primarily filled with _______________.
In bovines, where do urinary calculi frequently lodge?
at the distal portion of the sigmoid flexure
In ruminants, the ______________ covers the bulbourethral glands, unlike in horses.
bulbospongiosus m. (horses have bulbourethralis m.)
What are the parts of the bovine prostate gland?
body and disseminate part
The body of the bovine prostate is small and connected by an ______________.
Describe the disseminate part of the bovine prostate gland.
surrounds the urethra and is covered by the urethralis m.
Describe the small ruminant prostate gland.
only the disseminate part
Where does the bulbourethral gland open in ruminants?
urethral diverticulum in the dorsal wall of the urethra
What would prevent a catheter from entering the pelvic portion of the urethra in ruminants?
[Ruminant] After the __________ branches off, the a. of the penis becomes the _____________.
Deep a. of the penis; dorsal a. of the penis
[Ruminant] After the ____________ branches off, the internal pudendal a. becomes the ______________.
ventral perineal a.; a. of the penis
[Ruminant] After the _____________ branches off, the internal iliac a. becomes the ____________.
caudal gluteal a.; internal pudendal a.
[Ruminant] Where does the prostatic a. arise?
internal iliac a.
What branches off the a. of the penis?
a. of the bulb, deep a. of the penis