Anatomy- Pelvis Part 4.txt
Card Set Information
Anatomy- Pelvis Part 4.txt
vetmed anatomy pelvis
vetmed pelvis part 4 equine
The perineum is the topographic area under the ___________.
What are the superficial dorsal, ventral, and lateral boundaries of the perineum?
dorsal- base of the tail
ventral- Males:scrotum, Female
: mammary gland/udder
lateral- semimembranosus m.
What are the deep dorsal, ventral, and lateral boundaries of the perineum?
dorsal- the end of the sacrum and the first caudal vertebra
ventral- ischial arch
lateral- sacrosciatic ligament
6 muscles associated with the perineum?
coccygeus, levator ani, retractor penis/ retractor of clitoris m., constrictor vestibuil/constrictor vulvae mm.
Where is the coccygeus m.?
originates at ischiatic arch and goes up to the tail
Where is the levator ani m.?
on the lateral wall of the rectum
What is the perineal body?
3D structure formed by the muscle and connective tissue b/w the termination of the GI and repro tracts
What are the 5 components of the perineal body?
smooth muscle of internal anal sphincter, skeletal muscle of external anal sphincter, connective tissue of rectovaginal septum, muscle of vestibular and vaginal wall, muscle of rectum and anal canal
How may lacerations of the perineal body occur?
linear tear during parturition; rectovaginal fistula- one hole poked by foal in birth canal
The ischiatic spine is deep to the ___________; it is the insertion point of the....
greater trochanter; sacrosciatic ligament
What is the sacroiliac ligament?
connective tissue sheet from tuber sacrale to lateral sacral crest and spinous processes
What is the sacrosciatic ligament?
inserts on the lateral sacral crest, ischiatic spine, and ischiatic tuberosity
The greater and less sciatic notches form...
the greater and lesser sciatic foramina when connective tissue is in place.
What structures pass through the greater sciatic foramen?
sciatic n., cranial gluteal a.
What structures pass through the less sciatic foramen?
tendon of internal obturator m.
How is the internal pudendal a. associated with the lesser sciatic foramen?
it is medial to the foramen but does not pass through
What is the tuber sacrale?
medial projection of the ilium
What are the branches of the sciatic n.?
cranial gluteal n., caudal gluteal n., caudal cutaneous femoral n.
What is the course and target of the caudal cutaneous femoral n.?
goes around ischial arch to become sensory to the caudal thigh
The pudendal n. becomes the...
dorsal n. of the penis clitoris
What does the caudal rectal n. innervate?
coccygeus m, levator ani m., anal sphincters
What nerves are buries in the sacrosciatic ligament?
pudendal n., caudal rectal n.
What structures are supplied by the cranial gluteal n.?
gluteal mm., tensor fascia latte m.
What structures are supplied by the caudal gluteal n.?
superficial and medial gluteal mm., biceps femoris m.
[Male] The external iliac a. gives rise to...
cremaster a., deep femoral a.
After the ___________ branches off, the external iliac a. becomes the ___________.
deep femoral a.; femoral a.
The pudendoepigastric trunk gives rise to...
caudal epigastric a., external pudendal a.
[Male] The external pudendal a. gives rise to...
superficial caudal epigastric a., cranial a. of the penis, dorsal a. of the penis
The internal iliac a. gives rise to...
internal pudendal a., caudal gluteal a.
[Male] The internal pudendal a. gives rise to...
umbilical a., prostatic a., caudal rectal a., perineal a., a. of the penis
[Male] The a. of the penis gives rise to...
a. of the bulb of the penis, dorsal a. of the penis
The caudal gluteal a. gives rise to...
cranial gluteal a.
The cranial gluteal a. gives rise to...
iliolumbar a., obturator a.
[Male] The obturator a. gives rise to...
iliacofemoral a., middle a. of the penis
In a male, the umbilical a. traces back to the ____________ from the _____________.
internal pudendal a.; urinary bladder
In a male, the obturator a. i located on the ___________ and traces back to the ___________.
shaft of ilium; cranial gluteal a.
The deep femoral a. bifurcates into...
medial circumflex femoral a., pudendoepigastric trunk
[Male] After the ___________ branches off, the internal pudendal a. become the ___________.
perineal a.; a. of the penis
[Male] After the ____________ branches off, the external pudendal a. becomes the _____________.
superficial caudal epigastric a.; cranial a. of the penis
[Male] The middle a. of the penis bifurcates into...
deep a. of the penis, dorsal a. of the penis
[Female] The umbilical a. traces back to the ___________ from the ___________.
internal pudendal a.; urinary bladder
[Female] The obturator a. is located on the _____________ and traces back to the _____________.
shaft of the ilium; cranial gluteal a.
[Female] The external iliac a. gives rise to...
uterine a. (may also come off aorta), deep femoral a., femoral a.
[Female] The internal pudendal a. gives off...
umbilical a., vaginal a., caudal rectal a., perineal a., a. of the vestibular bulb
[Female] After the ____________ branches off, the internal pudendal a. becomes the ___________.
perineal a.; a. of the vestibular bulb
[Female] The obturator a. gives rise to...
iliacofemoral a., caudal mammary a., a. of the clitoris
[Female] The external pudendal a. gives rise to...
cranial and caudal mammary aa.
The caudal gluteal a. is in the ______ part of the _____________.
dorsal; sacrotuberal ligament
The cranial gluteal a. goes ________ over the _________.
dorsally; shaft of the ilium
What is the intermammary groove?
divides the mammary gland into left and right halves
What are the components of the equine mammary gland?
In horses, how many milk producing units are there, and how many teat orifices are there?
2 milk producing units per half, and two orifices per teat (2 teats)
Lactiferous ducts drain into __________.
What are lactiferous sinuses?
storage unit for milk
What are the components of the lactiferous sinus?
gland sinus and teat/papillary sinus
The gland sinus is in the __________.
body of the mammary gland
The teat/papillary sinus is the...
hollowed out portion of the teat
How does milk travel from the lactiferous ducts out of the teat?
lactiferous duct--> gland sinus (of lactiferous sinus)--> teat sinus (of lactiferous sinus)--> teat/papillary duct--> teat/papillary orifice
What is waxing in horses?
sebaceous secretions, epithelial debris, and colostrum that covers the teat 4-48 hours before parturition (may extend up to 10 days)
Each half of the bovine udder has...
a cranial and caudal quarter
Unlike horses, ruminants have ________ orifice(s) per teat.
What is Furstenberg's rosette in ruminants?
mucosal folds at the proximal aspect of the papillary duct
How can Furstenberg's rosette in ruminants cause issue with milk flow?
if folds are redundant or enlarges, it ay block the easy flow of milk
Attachments of the suspensory apparatus of the bovine udder originate from the _______________ and give rise to...
symphyseal tendon of the pelvis; medial and lateral laminae.
Describe the location of medial laminae of the bovine udder suspensory apparatus.
apposed next to each other along the midline
The medial laminae of the bovine udder suspensory apparatus are __________ in nature; the lateral laminae are composed of _________________.
elastic; dense connective tissue
How is the medial laminae relevant surgically?
allow clean separation of halves during mastectomy
What are the components of the lateral laminae of the bovine udder suspensory apparatus, and where are they located?
superficial sheet (blends with femoral fascia), deep sheet (covers the lateral aspect of the gland)
The a lactating cow, the ____________ is the main supply to the udder; it has a characteristic _________ before it divides into...
external pudendal a.; sigmoid flexure; cranial and caudal mammary aa.
What artery supplies the hindquarter of the bovine udder?
mammary branch of the ventral perineal a. (may anastomose with caudal mammary a.)
A venous ring surround the ____________ in bovines.
base of the udder
What are the 3 routes of venous travel in the bovine udder?
milk vein, external pudendal vein, perineal vein
The milk vein passes __________ along the abdominal wall from the udder; it is also called the ___________.
cranially; subcutaneous abdominal vein
What contribute to the formation of the milk vein?
fusion of cranial and caudal superficial epigastric veins
What is the milk well in ruminants?
foramen in the rectus abdominis muscle through which the milk vein enters
The mammary gland tissue in ruminants is innervated by the _____________.
The skin over the cranial part of the udder in ruminants is innervated by the ______________.
ventral branches of spinal nn. L1 and L2
The caudal portion of the skin of the udder in ruminants is innervated by the _______________.
mammary branch of the pudendal n.
What ln. drains the ruminant udder?
supramammary lymph node
What is unique about the udder of small ruminants?
left and right halves with one teat per side; only 2 milk-producing units and 2 orifices (one on each teat)
In the mammary, the external pudendal a. gives rise to...
cranial mammary a. and caudal mammary a.
The caudal part of the udder is supplied blood by the __________.
ventral perineal a.
What 3 veins fuse to form the external pudendal vein?
cranial and caudal mammary veins and ventral perineal a.
The milk vein travels through the milk well to fuse with the ____________.
internal thoracic vein
The ventral perineal vein joins the _____________.
internal pudendal vein